This paper will investigate the influence of celebrity endorsement during purchasing of goods and services for some of the renowned brands. Before presentation of the key issues of this paper, its enough significant to address the core point of the paper as a part of marketing brand management strategies or the branding strategies. Due to cross cultural differences among geographic regions marking program has also been required to be applied differently though it’s the era of globalisation. In the brand management practice, to motivate the consumer’s purchasing decision, the impacts of the celebrities’ endorsement have numerous positive outcomes though there is some chance of high risks factors.
At the same time face value or the existing popularity of a celebrity is an optimistic issue to making deed but with the consideration, that it has also needed to concentrate that the demand would not last forever. Additionally, scandal of the superstars or their frequent imbalance as well as unrealistic lifestyle would have become a threat to influencing on the purchasing decision of consumers. Observing some of the case studies and conducted research of this paper has announced that celebrity endorsement, as a cherished ingredient of brand marketing management would not be effective in most of the cases moreover, contribution of this module could not bring longtime effectiveness.
The celebrity’s endorsement and its influence on the consumer’s purchasing decision-making process is the prime issue of this paper. This paper has also focused on the celebrity’s support during branding of the product or service. Assembling of this dissertation has segmented into five different aspects such as Introduction, literature review, methodology, result and findings, discussion and conclusion as required by issue and in addition, the introductory part of the literature review has involved in a lucid description of the celebrity endorsement, understanding the consumer behavior, and research objective questionnaires.
Background of the problem
Temperley & Tangen (2006) argued that now in this globalisation era, the celebrity endorsement has turned into multi-billion valued business industry in the midst of the industrialists who have signed deed with the superstars with the anticipation that the celebrities can help the brand stand along with an exceptional personality with the appropriate pose of the purchaser’s psyche. Behind the celebrity’s endorsement marketing communication strategies have concerned with a set of major forces such as indication of optimal consciousness potentiality through endorsement, establish encouraging thoughts whenever promoting the product and service of the brand.
Alternatively, the commercialisation attributes of the superstar endorsement have also frequently professed amusing over and above the promotion of celebrity’s endorsement has addressed as an omnipresent aspect of the modern marketing communication strategies. For instance, during 1997 in the United States, a marketing research investigation has demonstrated that 25% of the entire advertisement has marked the superstar endorser and in Japan; more than 70% billboard promotion has featured by the most popular faces whitest endorsed.
Moreover, the celebrity endorsement research has outlined the result that the marketing communication approach could have a great influence to drawing the purchaser’s concentration, awareness, repeatedly remember, appraisal of the purchasing objectives. Even though a quantity of the influences have concerned with gap across the impacts of the star endorsement and influencing the purchasing decision of consumers whilst it has drawn closer to the genuine performance. Thus, it is necessary to have an investigation into the impact of celebrity’s endorsement and its influence on the purchasing decision of consumers that would generate an unambiguous outlook towards the further research.
Research objectives or questions
To execute the research aim to have an investigation into the impact of celebrity’s endorsement and its influence on the purchasing decision of consumers, following are the most suitable research question moreover. The objectives are sited in bellow would have illustrated a broader sense in all the area of investigation that would chronologically generate the ultimate findings of this research to wrap up of the problem and finally made a conclusion along with necessary recommendations, the research questions are-
- How would the celebrity’s endorsement affect on the viewpoint of strategic promotion?
- How celebrity’s endorsement influences the marketing campaign to persuade consumer-purchasing attitude?
- What are the key success factors of the celebrity endorsement to influence consumer-purchasing decision?
- What is the justification of the celebrity endorsement during appraisal of the risk and returns?
To a brief discussion of the research objectives, this literature review part has outlined through relevant theoretical framework or models to answer the research questions. Discussion of the effects on strategic promotion of the celebrity’s endorsement is an influential force for the purchasing decision making, key success dynamics and finally, the justification of the both positive and negative issues during endorse have presented in this literature part through a clear and concise form.
It has addressed that during today’s business world, integrated marketing has become an essential segment to communicate with the consumers in terms of the celebrity endorsement and consequently the endorsement ought to be examined in the over all framework of the communication scheme. Celebrity endorsement at present has been driven through three essential macro dynamics those have a great influential power both in constructing the valid marketing strategies in addition to magnifying the purchasing decision of the consumer. The three dynamics are first; construct a continuous vertical growth between the brand and their target consumer’s trade off.
Second, optimal utilization of the broadcasting or mass media like television, online or Internet advertising, live program in the FM radio station, news paper ads, ad billboard etc. since modern generation consumer’s has enough proficient to control the messages they have received. Third, make an efficient as well as optimal employment of the faster growing medium destruction along with the marketable communication clutter. Accumulation of these three issues would made golden opportunity while the brand has tried to gain target consumer’s awareness as well as interest (Temperley & Tangen, 2006). Following is the diagram that has shoed communication way by the celebrity endorsement.
Understanding of the consumer behaviour
The consumer behaviour has studied of the overall buying approach of a consumer some of them is how do people buy, what will they buy, when would they buy, why do they buy and so on. Joshi & Ahluwalia (2008) argued that overall buying or purchasing decision has generated through meld of a set of forces such as psychological, societal, socio-psychological, anthropology, economics etc. furthermore understanding of the consumer behavior has enough proficient during its working area as well as highly concern on individual and cluster purchasing or buying decision-making process. Whenever consumer behaviour has been studied individually, it has included demographic features, psychographic views moreover behavioral inconsistencies and in terms of the group or cluster perception, influencing features are family structure, form of the associates, reference group, as well as the society in general.
Ultimate result of the study and awareness of the consumer buying behavior cannot but help the business firm and organization to improve their product promotional strategies as well as product and service recommendations. Several significant influential dynamics have been quoted below, which has influenced appreciably on consumer’s psyche therefore; they would easily decide to buy.
- From the consumer’s standpoint product differentiation: here strategy management researchers have dealt with the consumer’s psychological perception like consumer’s imagination ability, feelings, facts, and the differentiation and selection tools.
- Environmental strengths that have motivated the consumer’s psychology such as cross cultural forces, family composition module, signs, and mass media etc.
- The consumer’s communication approaches during shopping or in terms of making purchasing or further marketing assessment
- Limitations of the consumer’s knowledge or information or data justification ability have to be quoted significantly since it has influenced decision making as well as marketing result
- Modes of the customer motivation and the decision making strategies have differentiated available product or services from their significance and interest level that has generated the consumer’s demand
- Improvements of the marketing advertisement strategies so that recent innovation would be satisfactory effective to understanding the consumer’s demand as well as buying behaviours
- Consumer’s age limit, religious belief, cultural issues, income level, municipal group and the referent group
Understanding of these concerns cannot but help the marketing executives adapt their crafted strategies in terms of the consumer’s deliberations (Joshi & Ahluwalia, 2008).
Celebrity endorsement and effective strategic promotion
The celebrity endorsement during execution of the promotional strategies has become an absolute panacea for all of the marketing woes. The current, marketing strategic approach that has frequently been utilised would have the potentiality to accomplishment successfully all categories of brand creating and the superstar appearance conversely has needed to faultless blending of the intelligence as well as strategies to cultivate the yields of making brands. Moreover, outcomes of this approach have nursing as a supporting tool for further respond as well as influencing purchase decision. However, absent of the inventive, powerful and effective conceive would be terrified the impeccable positioning of the brand in market (Khatri, 2006).
In the current competitive atmosphere, two crucial mentors would have arranged the ultimate success of the brand and they are effective communication towards the consumer along with the appropriate strategic position. The corporate bodies have tried to ensure optimal potentiality to promoting the potential brand to take hold of the absolute consumer’s attention as well as construction of optimistic involvement for the further remember as well as to dramatically persuade of purchasing decision making (Sciffman & Kanuk, 2007).
It has been pointed out that during the most effective advertisement campaign; the company has acquired all categories of the influential potentiality those have with an adequate effectiveness, played behind the consumer integrating while they have determined to purchase. From both of the theory and realistic examination have demonstrated that the celebrity endorsement during the advertisement campaign has fabricated vast publicity and consequently could gather huge attention from the consumer.
According to the advertisement, campaign through celebrity endorsement has required an enormous flow of the money but not all of those have gone under water. For example, LIZ Hurley, Pretty Zinta, Britney spears, Mr. Amir Khan, Tiger woods and many more already have legendary advertisement role in the marketing advertisement industry.
Moreover, it has been evaluated that since at the early period of the 21st century, in USA famous companies has paid out about $ 800 million to get hold of the brightest entertainer, sports icon, singer taking their advertisement practices into the spotlight. On the other hand, in India, most demanded beverages like PEPSI, Coca-Cola, and malted beverage such as Boost have been advertised by the superstars like Sachin Tendulkar, Shahrukh Khan, Amitbh Bacchan, and this scenario has also existed in other famous brands (Khatri, 2006)
Influence of celebrity endorsement marketing campaign
As a strategic part of the marketing communication the celebrity endorsement approach has been extensively applied in addition to the marketing research field, assortment procedure as well as the ultimate result of the celebrity endorsement including both of unenthusiastic and optimistic effects has elaborated. Result of the overall discussion on celebrity endorsement has reflected in its significance, credibility of the superstars, image of a superstar in people’s mind, difficulties of the overwhelming, multiple endorsement etc. Moreover, prescribing how the potential difficulties would have controlled those have arisen from the celebrity endorsement during marketing communication of a firm’s brand (Dimed & Joulyana, 2005).
Key success factors of the celebrity endorsement
Assemble of numerous dynamics could bring ultimate success of the celebrity endorsement. Some of them are credibility standard, the puppet master, the influential works, overshadowing, and self-image and so on. Key dynamics of the ultimate success has been illustrated sequentially in follow.
The credibility standard
According to the credibility standard, it has also denoted by genuine factor in terms of optimal the respondent. For clarification, the genuine forces have referred the perception and optimistic image of the celebrity’s in addition to their encouraging affiliations. In broader sense, performances of the superstars have to speak for the enjoyable life and entertainment furthermore; sense of realistic phenomenon has also been reflected in their advertisement as well as daily life. Another important point is that people of certain community have fond of watching their beloved icon as a kid and as a sport participant at the same time but they have neglected to watch their daily life (Sharma & Sahni, 2009).
The credibility research has also argued that, construction of a celebrity has been influenced by the connections of the customers where would be terminated. In most of the cases, the consumers or the respondents have preferred to see such advertisement where celebrities are presented as their natural and authentic look. For example, many of Mr. Beckham’s fans responded that now he is rather matured and this is the one of credibility example of a superstar. However, if the preconditions were assembled in such a way that the consumer has scope to connect with a superstar it might be viewed as better scope to product or brand enforcement in addition to all of the events have justified as natural and also bona fide.
Introduction of the celebrity credibility, besides the significance of the credibility, there has existed a truly common limitation that major part of the respondent has claimed the credibility has gone under the flow of money. More specifically, most of the time the celebrity endorsement has experienced that the superstars have like to endorsed brands or the products for making more money rather than the product or the services has been endorsed moreover, an idol medium to utilize their images, alternatively, magnification of their face values. A pessimistic view about the celebrity endorsement might be sometimes expressed in this way moreover the brand name or the product demand has also been influenced negatively or been injured (Temperley & Tangen (2006).
Concern on social responsibility
Temperley & Tangen (2006) argued that that numerous researches have demonstrated more positive outlook to the celebrity endorsement specially in the belongings where it has applied for public orientation to acquire communication for any particular product or brand that ultimately keeps positive impact for mankind even as nurse back to health some patient.
Conflicting issues of a celebrity
Misra & Beatty, (1990) addressed that a number of dazzling celebrities trying to control and manipulate the consumers to purchase the endorsed product while some of the enthusiastic customers carry pictures of those celebrities though the celebrities talk and perform just like a puppets rubbishy used by companies to attract customers. The picture of celebrities with a product reflects on the reality that companies are using celebrities to persuade the consumers’ manners in a convinced course of action. Meanwhile the consumer often makes out the celebrities to say dishonest verses and double-dealing character when endorsing with certain products and the other interesting view is that the companies have lack of control over the actions of a celebrity.
Appraisal of the risk and returns
Theories of the celebrity endorsement have stayed on the transferable ethics of a celebrity, in terms of coupled with a renowned brand and therefore cannot but help create a reflection on consumer’s mind. As a result, appraisal of the risk against returns has assessed that whenever the celebrity has integrated with a brand there has the potentiality to acquire instant appreciation as well as progress transaction. Though there have been loads of threat has involved in the midst of such approvals and the brand could be gone down within a minute as promptly as it has moved up the consumer’s mind. Despite legendary celebrity endorsement, there have been scores of illustration of the failure of branding in the consumer market place (Roozen, 2005).
- Celebrity has taken the brand into the limelight: the consumer market in several cases has behaved like a stranger where cluster of the celebrity values could not bring any yield in addition to the brand values there was no subsistence of any trade-off. Frequently it has been quoted that there has mare probability to remember a celebrity rather than a brand. The “cyber media research study” has exposed that most of time the respondent approached for the research has kept in mind the celebrity but in terms of brand endorsement, the celebrity would not be recalled.
- Necessary evil: promotional segment of the marketing department has experienced that whenever any brand rides on the back of a celebrity it would become too intricate to promote the product or service without support of that star. In view of the fact it has become enormous thorny to separate the functions of the message in addition to the role of the celebrity whenever selling or promoting the branded product or services. Motions of a celebrity have turned into an obsession as well as to discovering replacement of the marketing tasks have also grown to be trickier than before (Peter & Olson, 2005).
- On behalf of a competent consumer, the superstar’s creditability is a question mark: at present, the promotional endorsement has needed to compact in the midst of the competitive as well as smart consumers who have the strength to speak out for their views while endorsing the brand. To sell as well as converse about the efficiency of the brand, the celebrity has whispered to befool the consumer due to they have to pay. In favor of this motive, the questions about the creditability of a celebrity have preferred to look after the brand that has become relatable.
- Conflicting Image: the product along with the credibility image of a celebrity would be injured while they have merged in the same vessel at a time. Branding endorsement strategies would remain productive if there have a horizontal; trade-off involving the celebrity’s reflection in addition to the category of the product.
- Multiple endorsements: trend of the multiple endorsement have motivated the celebrity untidiness and whenever the celebrities have endorsed numerous products as well as multiple brands, the group has felt absence of the customer’s confusion in addition to going ahead to the strengths of the celebrity’s significance.
- The role of the celebrity rumor along with the moral contravention on the brand: Whenever the endorser’s image or the celebrity face value has come to an end, several performer and sportsperson have been involved in the such activities that would be embarrassed the company’s endorsed products and services and it has resulted a prompt destroy of the brand image. As for illustration, when Mr. Azharuddin charged for the gambling of match fixing, that was generated a pessimistic sensation as well as abhorrent deliberation in the society for his endorsed products and services.
- Fabricate responsiveness: in the course of the celebrity endorsement, the new-fangled brand could be promoted to the highest degree and it would be magnetised the customer’s concentration as well as inquisitiveness to perceive about the product would be endorsed. Several researches have exposed that the consumer has a high-level of the message to recall the product and service, which were endorsed by the celebrities.
- Emotional attachment: some of the legendary superstars have the power to persuade optimistically their enthusiasts moreover their great extents consequently tend the community toward an emotional attachment with the brand due to the stars having endured that. For example, a quantity of celebrities such as Shahrukh and Amitabh has great command to adoration the community (Khatri, 2006)
- Swift connectivity: Due to supplementary charisma of the celebrities, and accelerate communication scheme has a lot of potentiality since the message has carried by the stars and could be snapped more efficiently on consumer’s mind. Dynamics of the connectivity circled among the likeability, repeated recall the magnetism as well as creditability of the celebrity that cannot but helping the brand evidently along with promptly overtake the message on the target customer’s mind.
- Scope of the brand differentiation: celebrity endorsement is a smart tool for the brand differentiation and consequence of this approach several segmentation of a brand have endorsed while it was launched in the market like the Boost (malted beverage) have enough scope to differentiate itself.
- Reproduction sources of the product in addition to boosting its consumption: another trend of the consumer’s is that they liked to start using any product just because the image of a celebrity has reflected as a model or idol in the target audience or customer’s mind moreover the product has attached with the name their beloved celebrity. On behalf of the Lux case study, it has been recommended as beauty soap by many beauty queens in different countries such as Ms Aishwarya Rai has now promoted Lux in India.
- Superior brand image: For an optimistic view of any brand on mass society, it has enough significant to make use of the optimistic image of the endorsed celebrities as well. For illustration, many of the renowned brands as ICICI, Dabur, Nerolac Paints, and Pepsi etc. have brought inculcate trust during the attachment of the credibility in addition to the authenticity of Mr. Amitabh Bacchan.
The dissertation has aimed to conduct the research approach in such a way where the research theories in addition to their inductive rationalisation have also been demonstrated while necessity of the central research strategies would efficiently fulfill the interested areas of the research, achievements as well as would be able to present an unambiguous and short and snappy analysis.
At the preliminary point, the entire research approach has been generated by accumulating qualitative methodology attributes like basic research approach usage through a right track, crucial research execution tactics, and a resourceful attention of these features would have brought better outcomes to reach the aim of the paper. Then again, a transparent erection technique of the research approach has provided a suitable medium to instant reply of the research questions whenever required through an international standard (Malhotra 2009, pp. 7-13). Additionally, the research approach has been structured through multiplicities of strategic alliances whilst data has been collected therefore a crystal clear rationale has been delivered all over the process.
Reliability and validity
With the aid of the research topic of the paper, an authentic presentation has been arranged while constructing interview as well as focused why does the alternative data collection scope has less favoured than an interview. Interested issues of the interview have been conceived in such a way therefore it would easily over and above accurately have facilitated the necessary recommendations to prevent existing limitations. As for example, role of the celebrity endorsement has great influence during consumer purchasing decision making. A comprehended theory and practice have been integrated here to meet the purpose of this section.
The entire research methodology has involved necessary data collection to design the solution of the research interest issues. Executives of the research have assembled all potential data and information for their proper placement (Malhotra, 2005, pp. 441). Furthermore, utilisations of numerous variables have also permutated here to evaluate the central concern of the research in addition, there have also a set of statistical tools employed to construct decision-making sculpt as well as analysis of the findings or results of the research interest.
During the analysis of the core interest of the research topic and tend towards an ultimate decision standpoint the interviewed questionnaire and the outcomes of the gathered information was not satisfactory and another significant issue there have not enough scope to prescribe the limitations of the overall process. Consequence of this dilemma, a comparison scheme of the previous and existing data or information has been conducted here along with the qualitative approach since it has rather complex free for data collection.
In the application time of the qualitative approach, observation tools have mostly been addressed from the secondary research sources like interview queries, relevant publications, and survey results and so on. Merits of this practice instruction have significantly provided effective time usage directions as well as comparatively less error of the findings. Additionally, both the strategic brand management executives and the purchasing decision makers have made available an enrich view for researcher. Finally, to protect conspiracy of the entire team it would have been better to make proper use of multiple secondary resources.
Considering the consumer’s response in terms of the celebrity endorsement has gathered to move forward therefore it would be trouble-free to understand the municipal consumer’s view globally. More specifically, the secondary research of the paper has enough proficient to understand diverse segment of the consumer such as different age level, income limit, view towards promotional techniques and preferences and so on. Central issues of the celebrity endorsement, which have enormous role in consumer decision-making, have quoted in bellow.
- Strategic promotional support of the celebrity endorsement that would stimulate the consumer’s therefore they would overcome their product or service or brand purchasing misunderstandings
- Marketing campaign by endorsing the celebrities how would persuade the consumer purchasing decision
- Key success factors of the celebrity endorsement those have influenced the consumer purchasing decision
- Evaluation of both dynamic forces as well as dilemmas in endorsing the celebrities in the brand management strategic approaches
At some stage in the primary research, it has been estimated that compared to secondary research resources or techniques of the primary research has not plenty whenever secondary research has involved in annual report of the famous brands, journal and article by the renowned authors as well as researchers, research papers or reports, relevant books, magazines, personal view in Internet etc. While analyses of both external and internal environment by employing these forces have enlightened the researcher’s perception, therefore, they have overcome the dilemmas through a realistic form moreover; it has also been easier to reply the objectives of the celebrity endorsement.
A set of common inadequacy have faced to designing and completing the paper but the prospective span of accomplishment the paper have encouraged through awareness as well as investigation of the each and every point of the celebrity endorsement in consumer’s purchasing decision making. Followed by this, venture understanding the consumer’ physic, global market features, most effective branding strategies to execution in celebrity endorsement etc. have been considered here significantly. During examining of the paper, following is the limitation of the study.
- Taught time limit to construct such an elaborated research paper
- Lack of relevant primary data or information that have made constrain in communicating with the respondent over and above many of the respondent have no interest to participate
- Inadequacy in coordinating the entire budget and development composition
- Scattered circumstances in addition to the irrelevant secondary resources that have no proficiency to assembling the paper
- Confidential matter in collecting data or information from private resources
Results and findings
On behalf of the literature overview along with the research, objectives there have a lot on examples of the celebrity endorsement containing both positive and negative influences. In the results or findings part of this paper, several renowned case studies have elaborated below in order. These examples have reflected diverse motivation while brand endorsement.
Customer’s decision-making; David Beckman as a Celebrity
At the beginning of the 21st century, Mr. David Beckham has another of the most fashionable soccer leading light since the late 1990s. Mr. Beckham has attached with two attributes enough handsome and amazingly expert in free kick scores and make use of these in European countries as well as in Asian region he has devoted by a lot. Significance of this preface has made the legendary brand struggle to sign Beckham as an endorser of their products and services.
If anybody looks into his the family structure has evaluated that he was born in a middle class earned family and from childhood he was fond to playing football and also was determined to take it as profession. Within a short time Backhand, has proved himself as one of the most desired full-fledged player in the Manchester United, Europe and it has to be quoted that at the entrance period has was just a trainee (ICMR, 2009).
Additionally, the Spice Girl led vocal Ms. Victoria Adams wife of Beckham has the one of most admired fashion legend in the UK’s market and their joint effort in the branding industry has put them in front of famous tabloid many times. Not only in the fashion industry but also in many of the branded products and services has eagerly tried to make endorsement deed with them due to their mass influencing power in the people’s mind. Some of the companies those have get enormous benefit from this couple are mobile operator Vodafone, sports wear producer and distributor Adidas, beverage company Pepsi, cosmetics like Brylcreem, Mark, Spencer’s and a few of the Japanese Brand ambassador.
Through a marketing research analysis, it has evaluated that brand value of the Beckham has been worth more than two hundred million pound. A memorable event while Beckman was sold to the Spanish club Real Madrid in 2003, it was confused his both football fans as well as the promoter of his signed brand. Motivation that has insisted the Real Madrid to acquiring Beckham was mostly for his promotional efficiency rather than expertise in football ground. Strings of these have flowed among Beckham, interested football clubs and his sponsors enormously in endorsement decision-making (ICMR, 2009).
Purchasing decision in UK; Jamie Oliver as a Celebrity
According to Utalk Marketing (2009) in UK through an office announcement, most trustworthy and liked celebrity is Mr. Jamie Oliver in the area of brand endorsement. For the supplier and the seller it is incredibly a good news bulletin since an intensive demand of the Oliver. During 2000, it has exclusively broadcasted that in terms of purchasing decision about 18 % purchasers of the buyer have preferred Oliver’s unusual personality and in that time he as ranked fifth position but now at present, trustworthiness along with most liked category Oliver is the best in UK. At immediate after the Oliver with 10 % remarkable support Gary Linekar has held the second whereas the third position has grasped by the Myleene Klass by 9 % support.
In the meantime, football player Beckham has been able to get only 4 % support to placing in the sixth level over and above Oliver has not done any silly mission therefore a chance would have arisen a downturn of his popularity. On behalf of the Top shop, Kate Moss has in recent times paid 3 million pound to lead a campaign and the outcome has shown that only 0.8 % purchaser has been influenced to buy. An opposite image has also been reflected with these successful stories. For instance, Mrs. Beckham, another famous football player Wayne Rooney and hot model Katie Price have accomplished public denied in terms of influencing purchase. Amongst them Mrs. Beckham has attained 8 % vote in the category of least liked celebrity while purchasing.
Alternatively, 79 % UK’s municipal has commended that in case buying product or service the role of a celebrity has worthless and at the same time one third or 77 % has delighted for the multiple celebrity endorsement in purchasing product and services moreover, they have liked to walk with the step of repeated market change. Utalk Marketing (2009) has also appraised that the celebrity endorsement in the UK marketplace is not a craze and this marketing strategy has been treated pessimistically moreover, they have fond of instance replier like Jamie Oliver. In following three tables list of the top 10 celebrities has been quoted in different three categories respectively.
Negative experience of the Siyaram superstar endorsement
Gangadhar (2000) reported that the Indian clothing industry Siyaram1 leads its suiting brand J.Hampstead in the global market especially in Europe. To explore the brand image Siyaram engaged Hansie Cronje as a brand ambassador when was the captain of South African national cricket team with multimillion dollar contract and he was the major image for the brand
J.Hampstead among other celebrity endorsers who intended to participate in this campaign in March 2000. Just two weeks before the campaign started the police of disclosed one of the most significant scandals of the cricket world whereas investigating another domestic corruption case and the police discovered the record of discussion between Hansie Cronje and Sanjeev Chawla regarding match fixing. The investigation resulted that Cronje was involved in illicit betting with an international cricket tournament held in India for US$ 15000 and the news bring into the international media as a storm and seriously surprised the cricket fans while Cronje’s image was thrown into the dustbin and there was huge protest for this illegal act.
Siyaram was continuing the campaign featuring printing and publication jobs including electronic and outdoor billboard, advertising materials, but all the efforts ruined their celebrity endorsement and bowed into the worldwide-reviled sportsman from hero to zero overnight. This fact raised an impassioned question in corporate world and mass media about the hazard of celebrity endorsement in brand promotion and kept serious bad impact on J.Hampstead that affected defectively and the campaign was introverted.
Risk of Celebrities Endorsement and Resolution
Johansson & Sparredal (2002) pointed out that the company Axa with huge skills to handling celebrities’ endorsements has evidenced an exceptional episode of dilemma in November 2001 at the time while the company endorsed Swedish Olympic hurdles ex-champion Ludmila Enquist. The unfortunate event occurred at the time contending it had proved that she had abused with performance-enhancing drugs in the bobsled event in Norway while Axa has involved Ludmila Enquist to support their brand promotion. This event has drawn huge media attention and created huge debate that seriously injured Axa’s brand promotion.
The investigation with celebrity endorsements in this case has resulted another motivation for the company was just Axa’s keenness to be built-in within this process of negative impact and associated risk of celebrities’ endorsement.
Harrop (2009) explained that celebrity’s endorsement in brand promotion strategy has turned as an another contemporary business while the to bottom most of all celebrities earn huge money from the corporate world for instance Justin Timberlake charged McDonalds for just a single line autographic publicity “I Love-it-” for US$ 3.4 million compensation.
Therefore, it is much attractive to develop sense from the celebrity’s standpoint such as what they think about the brands, does it really can serve the long-term interest endorser and endorsee, more significantly, does the enhanced alternatives of them can provide a further optimistic implication upon the brand equity? From this research, the respondents’ very simply come back with the answer that though most of the celebrities and brands come into contract for particular timeframe, it just delivers a short-term huge boost in sales and gradually get better of its brand equity in long-term. This comes into true as most of the campaigns engage their brilliance to create its brand image but fail to generate an emotional login with consumers.
Moreover, to demonstrate why the brands become attractive after the celebrity’s endorsement, it has been argued by the respondents that the celebrities carry out such as a human angle to the consumers, in particular to moderately less impressive products and add new dimension of customers purchasing decision that delivers particularly enjoyable utility for them. Especially when a brand gets proper partnership of celebrity, an ordinary regular task of millions of customers to practice with the imperative process of their liked celebrity in their livelihood associated with the personal care, habit, and self-control.
There are huge difficulties for some of brands concerned with a narrow-minded focus upon short terms boosted revenue generation but with this way of thinking rationally leads these brands to engage with the campaigns of ill-conceived celebrity endorsement. This happens for the companies who can’t differentiate their product revenues as well as brand strategy; if they can realize, must go to have the celebrities with consistent values.
There is also numerous respondents’ view that some celebrity’s endorsement may not contribute anything to brand equity as well as short-term attention drawing but the consequence is that the consumers turn out to be confused with reference to that brand idea and emotionally standing apart from them. The most enlightenment outline and environment of celebrities’ endorsement are 360-degree views on the strategy transformation to formulate much more interesting product lines with improved impression appealing by the right celebrities would keep powerful combination.
Discussion or the analysis part of the paper has fusion by the outcomes of the findings or results part. Here to discuss of the effects of the celebrity in purchasing decision making relevant theories along with a concise examples and graphical presentation have been demonstrated clearly.
Joshi & Ahluwalia (2008) quoted that celebrity people who have enough skilled in their areas as well as have a great persuade by their performance in both of the civic life style and social sphere in addition to they have like to enjoying acknowledgement of the society. Common qualities of a celebrity have entire unavoidable magnetism, extraordinary life style; unusual expertise in performance, superior life image as well as demigod class etc. It has harmless to appraise that during the horizontal civic; the celebrities have usually diverged from the social custom in addition to enjoying advanced public awareness. Not all of the celebrity could build the same image in a municipal.
Appearance of a celebrity in the universal ground due to execution of the professional dedication additionally the superstar have appeared within the public to turn out the exceptional celebrity occasions such as the film fare award nights, unusual broadcasting, premier of the movies globally, arrangement of the charity shows on behalf of the natural disaster. The celebrities who have worldwide attendance as well as demand they have required to presenting ubiquitously like in the news events, fashion shows, coverage of the magazine, sensationalist, advertisement or endorsement of the brand etc.
Celebrities and brand Promotion
On behalf of the famous companies advertisement research, for the vertical growth of a company advertisement by a famous actor as well as endorsed by them is an effective tool. Moreover, these actors have proved by a great dependability as well as reliance on the endorsed brand and ultimately they cannot but help increase the profit margin of the company (Joshi & Ahluwalia 2008).
The celebrity endorsement during branding has enough influential that already has become apparent frequently. Core essentials in contrasting between the celebrity and a brand could be evaluated through following steps.
- continuous consciousness and proper understanding of the brand as well as flexible evoke
- Ethics along with the image of a certain brand have to be well described, decorated and revitalised by a icon
- The celebrity has the competency to affix modern periphery as well as a new breadth of the brand
- Connectivity of a brand towards the superstar have to annex through credibility, dependence, unity and ambition
- Keep confidence on the efficiency along with innovative exterior that would have been produce during a limited assessment practice
Consumer decision-making process
Consumer purchasing decision-making process has been briefly described in the following diagram though the overall process of the figure has been composed through a complex scheme but in the first phase, it has not looked so. A chronological discussion of the overall consumer decision-making process or system has been clarified below.
The first stage has conceived by the unsatisfied consumer’s demand or need and the starting point of the process has denoted as problem identification in addition, the ultimate goal of this process has to meet up the consumer’s unscathed demand. Thirst for any fastidious products or services has also been defined as psychological functions or the attitudinal attributes of the human being.
Collection of data or information
The problem recognition step has mostly focused and nursing the dynamics which have the competency to fulfilling the consumer’s demand as well as would satisfy the target consumer. Moreover, the stage has also eagerly tried to integrate among the purchasing ability coverage, involvement level of the community, both optimistic and pessimistic feedback from the consumers containing appropriate attributes, which cannot but help magnify the consumer’s demand to purchase.
Identification of the alternatives or substitutes
Grounded on the all of gathered information it would be easier for the consumer to select appropriate substitutes that would be suitable to afford the product or brand for the consumer. Furthermore, chosen product has enough proficiency to arrange relieve and in terms of comparison, the selected product has proved the economical empowerment rather than others.
Selection of the alternatives
In the assessment period selection of the alternative has begun to analysis the cost benefit ratios or in another term optimal outcome in utilizing one penny and also the assessment would be made support pick out desired products or the brands. In another way, the alternative selection time the purchaser has gathered enough confident to make decisions as well as could ensuring their position whether would they preferred one of the selected product or service of a brand.
Decision making to purchase
Finally, whenever a consumer entered into shopping mall or in the market place to purchase where their desired product or service has authentically existed.
Post purchase or the ultimate purchasing decision
In the post purchase assessment the consumer’s have liked to justify their own decision making therefore they would have consumed demanded products or services. In precise form, the justification has ensured the consumer that his decision has right or wrong. On the other side, the firm’s affordability honestly has tried to make easier the consumer’s decision-making process in addition to serving the absolute satisfaction.
The post purchase scheme has described three attributes such as firstly, required satisfaction, second, identification of the gap between available substitutes and the demand and at last, make the highest effort to present greater values than the consumer’s demand therefore the ultimate result would have gone toward the most advantageous brand loyalty creation (McCracken, 1989).
In terms of theory and practice of the celebrity endorsement there have a few of literature to narrate this concept. From viewpoint of the receiver or consumer, celebrity endorsement has needed to determine the issues for which the campaign would arrange. More specifically, marketing strategic management authority must have a clear and concise plan while they have taken initiatives to make decisions and demonstrated necessary variables, which would persuade the hierarchy of the communication feedback. Most proficient theoretical discussion has addressed bellow those have depth knowledge in effective celebrity endorsement.
Supply of the creditability and magnetism
During marketing advertisement or promotion reflection of the expert endorser have demonstrated through the degree of effectiveness of the message has delivered in addition to the dependability of the selected superstar. Consumer affiliation is the most crucial vision of the marketing advertisement that has dynamically effort to alter the consumer’s thoughts therefore, buyer could move towards to the brand consequently the brand of the firm would be able to influence the target client profitably. Moreover, there has an enormous magnetism of the trustworthiness of the advertisement strategies, which have chased the icon legitimate stratagem has facilitated the promoter to projecting the convincing illustration during the proficiency, articulate, credibility, along with the consequential purposes (Khatri, 2006).
Besides credibility forces, the term attractiveness of a celebrity endorser needs to be involved in eye-catching gesture along with outgoing qualities, fondness or the demand of the superstar’s face value, social responsibility or the ethics appearance of the celebrity and so on. An accumulation of sincerity and the reliability of a celebrity has generated the trustworthiness. Theory of the credibility has mostly focused on the confidence of the selected superstar and his/her performance would be highly appraised through a sound comparison with others. Furthermore, it has also assumed that brand awareness of a consumer has been influenced by multiple media and consequently it would have necessarily built a methodological policy to select celebrity representative track.
Correspond Hypothesis fabrication
Through numerous famous marketing advertisements, research outcomes have scrutinised a trade-off between the target superstars along with the endorsed brand would be proficient cannot but help optimal employing of the legendary stars during the advertisement or promotion of the product or service. Experiences of these researches have a mixed effect such as brand endorsement sometimes have brought mammoth success but many of the cases have failed since the scandal of the endorsed celebrities.
Hypothesis correspondence has drawn for an effective match between the signed celebrities and the product or service of the brand that has endorsed though acknowledgement of the legend has adequate aptitudes in creating consciousness. Over and above preliminary concern to advertise and the conclusion has shown that the trend of the consumer’s attitude might not be inevitably amended about the brand. Furthermore, the hypothesis model has highlighted that the attractive gesture of the superstar has an appraisal issue in time of endorsement and the endorsed brand would boost if the assessment of the product or service attributes would be consistent with reflection has conveyed by the celebrity during promotion.
Therefore, the expansion of the brand purchasing ahead of the attraction as well as creditability whenever the deliberations have to executed through manufacture of a complete illustration of a superstar by way of the brand has endorsed.
Model of meaning transfer
In a research it has explained that the icon representative would be valuable only if there have existed a transparent assessment of the consumer groups, which have connected with the celebrity endorser, which would have ultimately conveyed towards the product or service of the brand. The model of meaning transfer has been constructed by three sequential steps as described in the following diagram and features of this model have chronologically plotted before the diagram.
- The attributes of a superstar have made he/she sign the endorsement contract of a brand and in this way, the star could able to reach or connect with the target customer or buyers to endorse the brand.
- During the utilisation, scheme attributes the target purchasers have attained the brand’s significance.
- Finally, third condition of the hypothesis model has unambiguously demonstrated that the magnitude of the purchaser functions though the entire practice has endorsed the brand’s product or service.
With the aid of an illustration overall process of this model could be enlighten, Ms. Aishwarya Rai is a famous beauty queen in India who has gotten hold of the intellectual significance of her gorgeousness, grace, norm, superiority and outgoing personality. By utilisation of this attributes the Nakshatra Diamonds have transferred the meaning towards their company through endorsement contract signed by Ms. Aishwarya the same as Apsara in terms of the gorgeousness par superiority and the correspond has still definitely flawless (Khatri, 2006).
Multiple brand and Celebrity Endorsement
Endorsement of the multiple brand products has arisen on behalf of the creation of multi-product multinational companies. Currently, it has repeatedly been pointed that in different TV channels advertisement of multiple products of a company have been endorsed by an individual star and this culture has introduced a multi endorsement representative for an individual brand. As for illustration, Mr. Amitabh Bachhan has endorsed several products like beverages, textile item, chocolate, hair oil etc. An opposite of this example multiple stars have endorsed only one product or service and for instance, in India multiple stars from diverse background have endorsed Coke. In following chart, top ten superstars in India and their endorsed product and service has been presented.
Selection of the paramount endorser
During the variety stores of the brand endorsement, it might be a better approach to become aware of the brand’s conflicting issues among a group moreover, it has required contrasting synergy between the endorsed brand and the endorser superstar. In this scenario, an authentic task of the celebrity cannot but help speed up the brand’s icon prescription development and in the same advertising moment, it has addressed that the celebrity has arrived with heavy consignment of the liabilities that have not easy to circumvent (Khatri, 2006).
The selection resolution of the superlative endorser of any brand has significantly, outlined the constant concerns structured by the executives of the brand management strategy during the promotion of the brand. Moreover, three Cs of the marketing mix has addressed the praise of mass gratification for instance in the Asia Subcontinent region in times of sports, movie and dishes in cultural events.
Consequence of this it has to be quoted that branding has a great influence in building superstar atmosphere. Now, sports stars like cricketers as well as the movie stars have brushed up the brand name towards them and consequently has promoted glowingly. Alternatively, the superstars have to be enough strapping the brand names in addition to the aspect of the icon brand have to contest with the attributes of the brand’s product or service could be festooned.
Recommendation part of the paper, has prescribed a logical flow of the potential solutions therefore brand management of a company would have gone through smoothly by both the ways celebrity endorsement as well as implanting tricky strategies where purchasing decision-making does not demand celebrity endorsement. The recommendations are sequentially in below.
- Contrast people’s income level with the pricing strategies of the company therefore the price level of the product or service would not be phobia for the consumer.
- With the pricing approach superior quality of product would be able to attract consumer to purchase
- In terms of celebrity endorsement, make assure the credibility of the signed stars
- Besides credibility, attractiveness and trustworthiness are two prime dynamics to influencing consumer purchasing decision-making scheme.
- Constructive message sent by the superstars during the endorsement campaign would have significantly influenced the purchasing decision.
- Encoding course of action by sender or the promoter would another brilliant idea of branding strategies
- Behind the sender’s encoding, decoding would have been driven by the role of the receiver or the buyer
- Multiple celebrity endorsement for a certain brand has become greater effective
- In the opposite side of the multiple celebrity endorsement, single celebrity endorsement for the multiple brands has wider scope of magnifying purchasing ratios.
- Existing admiration and market demand have the competency to attract consumer to purchase
- Analysis of the environmental issues those have both external and internal influence in designing brand management strategies would be a great aid in decision making for both the buyer and seller
At the beginning of this paper as well as in the overall theoretical overview, case studies, analysis of the case studies and in the recommendation segment there have presented a brief rationalisation of the celebrity’s endorsement. In this termination part, it has once again pointed out that the topic of this dissertation is an important part of the brand management as well as the marketing strategy management.
Today’s globalisation epoch, influence of the celebrities to purchase goods and services of a particular band has massive preliminary role. However, it has also true absolutely that, this attachment has several negative impact on the brand as well as on the company. Taking into account all of the outcomes of the entire paper the celebrity endorsement influences investigation would have assisted the executives of the brand management team as well as the purchaser for making purchasing decision.
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- Siyaram Silk Mills Ltd.