The deviant status has a number of effects, irrespective of whether the action is self-inflicted (alcoholism) or imposed (sexual assault). The mainly known impact of deviant status is posttraumatic stress disorder, even though its impacts are also manifested in a number of other symptoms that are psychological. Some the psychological impacts include dissociation, flashbacks and nightmares.
These are warning signs, which are linked to violence and are designated by psychological infirmity diagnosis. Some other effects, such as despair, nervousness, fear, compulsive impulse, psychotic problems, and ingestion disorders, are common. These are common to individuals experiencing self-inflicted effects of deviance, such as alcoholism and drug abuse. Studies show that rebellious behaviour, which is hostile in nature, is visible more in men as compared to women.
Trauma is the major impact of imposed deviance status and is mainly witnessed in women. Among women, disruptive personality disorder, in which rage is internalized in the form of violence, is detected more regularly as compared to men. Usually, a more common identification is borderline personality disorder, which can be considered an internalization of rage over and above self-inflicted aggression.
Various studies suggest that drug intake is related to sexual abuse or physical attack. Substance abuse in this case serves as self-medication for the pragmatic effect of distress. This is a clear indication that deviance status is just the same, irrespective of whether the action is self-inflicted or imposed. Canadian Uniform Crime Reports suggest that illegal drugs caused an approximated 808 deaths in 1995 (Gomme 4).
Poisonous drugs caused at least 329 deaths while 160 deaths were results of opiate poisoning. In 1996, at least seventeen pregnant women were treated in various hospitals for foetal problems that resulted from heavy drinking (Gomme 4). The correlation between the utilization of drugs and shock is multifaceted meaning that a strong correlation between the two exists. The frequent use of substances among women makes them vulnerable to rape or other violently related actions.
This would further lead to prostitution whereby women might be tempted to exchange sex with drugs. For many individuals, abuse during childhood or youth might be experienced owing to the use of alcohol or drugs by their relatives or parents. This would haunt them in adulthood, as they would engage in physical or sexual abuse. This paper analyzes the impacts of deviant status, both self-inflicted and imposed, and goes a notch higher to confirm that these impacts are similar, irrespective of whether the deviant status is self-inflicted (alcoholism) or imposed (sexual assault). In this regard, the impacts of deviant status are intergenerational and transferable. Moreover, the impacts are cumulative, addictive, and summative. These features make deviant status similar, irrespective of whether it is self-inflicted or imposed.
General Impacts of Deviant Status
Individuals diagnosed with deviant statuses have histories of trauma and substance abuse. In a study conducted in Canada by one of the organizations specializing in rehabilitation of women, it was established that over 2729 of women had experienced sexual attack. Unfortunately, all women confessed to have used drugs at the time when the attack took place (Gomme 190). Gomme’s discussions of sexual assault suggest that a majority of sexual offenders are usually men.
He further clarifies that men would engage in rape mainly because of three reasons, one of them being anger. Moreover, men would engage in rape as an assertive power over women while the last category of men engages in rape for sadistic pleasure (Gomme 191). In fact, a majority of rapes are usually power rapes, which constitute sixty-five percent while twenty-nine percent are anger rapes. Only six percent are sadistic rapes meaning that men do not engage in rape to satisfy their sexual pleasures.
Those engaging in anger rape are usually filled with hate and frustration whereby they tend to redirect their vengeance towards women. Incidentally, a man would be aiming at humiliating a woman. This explains why anger rape is usually brutal as compared to any other form of rape. After the act, the victim would feel the sense of demeanour.
Rape results to physical injury on the side of the victim, with sexual assaults by strangers resulting to serious injuries (Gomme 212). In a study conducted in 1981 in Canada, it was established that rapists force victims to perform other sexual acts other than penetration. In the study, forty-eight participants claimed to have been beaten and chocked while ten reported to have been tied, blindfolded, and drugged. One of the respondents reported to have been shot and stabbed meaning that sexual assault can perhaps result to death (Gomme 212).
In chapter thirteen, Gomme is of the view that drug abuse has serious impacts, including death and injury. In the family unit, the cost of acquiring drugs consumes family resources to an extent that some of the basic facilities might not be provided (Gomme 245). In this case, it disrupts the family, brings about marital dissolution, and perpetuates violence against women and even children. Studies show that drug abuse, such as alcoholism, causes assaults in families whereby children and women are always victims. In extreme cases, it leads to suicide or homicide because some family members would not tolerate irresponsible behaviour, which is often associated with drug abuse.
In places of work, it results to accidents and inefficiencies because drunk workers might be unable to agree or coordinate properly. In a study conducted in 2004 in Canada, ten percent of alcohol users confessed to have been injured because of using drugs. Three percent of those interviewed reported to have encountered negative interactions with their friends. This shows that alcohol and drug use in general affects the health of an individual in a number of ways.
Some respondents reported that those who consume drugs had harmed them implying that alcohol use is dangerous to the existence of other people in society. Caroline Knapp’s story confirms that alcoholism is dangerous to the existence of others in society because he was putting the lives of the two children in danger (Knapp 1). She went out to play with children yet she knew that she was drunk. This would have harmed the two children, but she was wise to let herself injured instead of harming innocent children.
Deviance Status as Cumulative, Addictive and Summative
Irrespective of whether the deviance status is self-inflicted or imposed, the effects are usually cumulative, addictive and even summative. This means that the more the deviant status manifests itself, the greater the impacts. Moreover, the exposure to extra types of deviant statuses has a greater impact, which necessitates the conclusion that deviant behaviour is usually summative (Cottuy 7). This implies that the combination of various events, together with their impacts, gives people identifies.
Chances are high that such individuals would move on with these identities in life. These events are usually stored in people’s memory, which determines the sense of self and behaviour. In a study conducted to establish the effects of drug abuse, emotional abuse, domestic abuse, and sexual abuse, a number of respondents reported to have engaged in a number of negative actions. This confirms the cumulative and addictive nature of deviant behaviour. There is a high likelihood that children who are abused in childhood would be irresponsible people in future who would probably engage in alcoholism and sexual assault.
Studies confirm that a child with an ACE score of more than six would definitely be a drug addict or would even engage in sexual assault in future commitments. On the other hand, a child with an ACE of zero has a high likelihood of growing up to be a responsible person in life. In case an individual goes through sexual abuse or any other form of crime before attaining the adulthood age, such an individual would want to revenge once he or she becomes an adult. Those who go through sexual assault would be perpetrators of the same act in mature commitments meaning that deviant status is addictive, summative, and cumulative.
Deviance Status as Intergenerational and Transferable
Deviance behaviour reverberates from one generation to the other. Going through interpersonal abuse is usually risk-laden since it amplifies a person’s possibilities of experiencing problems with drugs. If an individual were brought up in a confused family, he or she would also bring up his or her children in a similar environment. When an individual witnesses his or her parents taking drugs, such an individual would want to test similar drugs in future. Therefore, the relationship between parents and their children is critical as far as transferability of deviance behaviour is concerned.
Cottuy, Maria. Moments of perfection: mountain casts its shadow. New York: St Martin’s Press, 2003. Print.
Gomme, Ian. The Shadow Line: Deviance and Crime in Canada. Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1998. Print.
Knapp, Catherine. Prologue to drinking a love story. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell, 1997. Print.