The ability of managers to ensure skillfulness and competence of their workforce and manage them accordingly results in job satisfaction, employee motivation, employee retention, improved performance, and eventually, organisational success. People management skills are the most powerful tools for boosting the levels of employee commitment and loyalty within an organisation. This research aims to investigate the degree to which people management practices in Palladium affect job satisfaction and employee motivation which in turn influence staff loyalty and retention. The research utilised both primary and secondary means of data collection and qualitative analysis. The researcher randomly contacted 85 respondents from Palladium International Limited (referred as Palladium hereafter), comprising of the senior management team, senior members of staff, as well as entry level employees to take part in the study. The data collected from both primary and secondary sources were analysed and interpreted to tackle the objectives of the study effectively. The findings of the study were that transformational leadership style and provision of allowances highly influence employee retention and the level of job satisfaction in Palladium. The study concluded that strengthening the connection amid leadership style, job satisfaction, and the rate of turnover through effective people management practices such as motivation results in employee retention.
Human Resource managers engage in the planning, direction and coordination of the administrative operations of an organisation. They manage the entire employee life cycle, all the way from attracting new talents to maintaining an effective employment relationship between an employee and the organisation while conferring with top executives on strategic planning and functioning as a connection between the company’s management and its workforce. HR often plays a critical role in influencing organisational performance (Ariani, 2012). The success usually depends on the formulation of the most favourable strategies and the deployment of the right resources to attain corporate goals (Zulnaidi, 2014; Bach & Edwards, 2012); its ability to harness the right energy from teams and direct them accordingly also contributes to their success and performance (Batt & Banerjee, 2012). In this regard, managers often must improve their stakeholders’ values. Part of the process involves motivating employees and encouraging them to be committed to their work (Cardy & Leonard, 2014). Here, the role of management centres in helping employees to understand how their contributions add to the overall accomplishment of organisational goals (Exponential Training & Assessment Ltd., 2012).
The integration of employee efforts, organisational planning processes, and managerial performance help to nurture committed employee teams that eventually improve corporate performance (Chung & Tijdens, 2013). Based on the link between management performance, team output, and organisational success, researchers rarely contest the instrumental role of management in influencing corporate performance through variations in employee output (Furnham, 2012). More so, the influence of People management in changing organisational output is undisputed (Grant, 2014). Indeed, managing people is about controlling or handling people as a factor of production or as instruments of value creation (Guinchi, Chambel & Ghislieri, 2015). Therefore, it is a people-based concept. Employee commitment and loyalty fall within the purview of this idea.
Many studies have underscored the relationship between management and team performance (Liao, 2017; Hitt & Shalley, 2017; Mahajan, 2012; Niehaus & Price, 2013; Phillips & Gully, 2013; Shahin, Attafar & Samea, 2012). However, few of them seem to understand the specificity that moderates this relationship. In other words, the nature of the relationship between management and employee performance in one company may be different from another (Tzempelikos, 2015). In this regard, most researchers have failed to highlight the peculiarities and uniqueness of each organisation when explaining the nature of the relationship between management and employee performance. Indeed, as Meyer (2016) and Zientara (2014) point out, different organisations have unique dynamics that would affect how employees relate to one another and how they feel about the organisation. This study seeks to fill this gap by investigating the relationship between people management practices and staff retention at Palladium.
The Rationale for the Study
Following a competitive bidding process, Palladium has of late succeeded to win a high-profile contract from the UK Government’s Department for International Development (DfID) to deliver its Humanitarian Emergency Response Operations and Stabilisation programme (HEROS). Previously this project was managed by a different supplier. Transfer of Undertakings (TUPE) legislation ensures that the employment of all the current employees are protected and will now be transferred to the new supplier under the same terms and conditions that were in place at the time of their initial appointments. Palladium has an ambitious plan for a transformative change in its organisational culture. However, the newly transferred employees are suspicious about their future with the new employer – Palladium resulting in employee resistance to change and adapt to the new organisational culture. For a sustainable organisational performance, Palladium needs to improve its employee engagement strategies and initiatives through leadership capability. This study of the relationship between people management practices and employee loyalty is crucial because employees are at the centre of its operations (O’Cass & Heirati, 2015; Ya, Noor & Nasirun, 2016). Underestimating the importance of staff retention could imply a failure in its overall operational performance (Raychaudhuri, 2013). Since people management is the most powerful tool for shaping such levels of commitment and loyalty. Hence, this study aims to understand the extent that managerial practices affect staff retention levels at Palladium.
Palladium International Limited (which is also referred to as the Palladium Group) is a global advisory and management organisation that represents a merger of seven prior businesses. Palladium denotes an international organisation that endeavours to connect social progress with commercial development (Palladium, 2018). In the last five decades, the organisation has been assisting its customers to see the globe as intersected through the formulation of policies, creation of partnerships, and execution of programmes that have long-term social and monetary influence. This is what the organisation calls “Positive Impact”. To realise its objectives, Palladium partners with companies, communities, civil societies, and Governments. The organisation has been legally set up in the UK. Additionally, it first seeks legal authority from the Government before starting its operations in any country.
The core mission of Palladium is to give back and better the livelihood of others. The organisation endeavours to offer direct financial backing to innovative Positive Impact programmes around the world. To be an international leader in the development and delivery of valuable solutions may appear as a lofty vision, but Palladium has been striving to realise it for over 50 years now (Palladium, 2018). The organisation has been working, in association with its customers, to strengthen communities across the globe to realise economic development and social stability. Such endeavours have been attained through comprehensive understanding, project leadership proficiency, and the application of successful management tools. To uphold Palladium’s success, the leadership team embodies the cultural principles of innovation, quality, diversity, teamwork, tenacity, and integrity. The Group Director of Finance and HR at Palladium directs and guarantees excellent management of human resources, monetary matters, procurement, and grants operations for projects being carried out by the organisation.
Currently, the organisation has about 3,000 employees working in approximately 90 nations across the globe. By the close of 2015, the Palladium Group was the fourth-largest private sector partner for the UK Government’s Department for International Development. The organisation is active in the expansion of social innovation, which encompasses impact bonds, collective value, and impact investing (Palladium, 2018). Some of the initiatives of Palladium encompass the Human Development Innovation Fund, Innovation Impact Framework, International Quality Care, and Funding the Ghanaian Agriculture Project to mention a few. The organisation recently declared the commencement of the Positive Impact Research Institute with the aim of discovering the present and future inclinations in the Impact Economy, as well as the associated Let’s Make It Possible not for profit organisation.
- What type of managerial behaviour characterises Palladium’s administration?
- To what extent does managerial behaviour affect job satisfaction at Palladium?
- To what extent do managerial behaviours affect employee motivational levels at Palladium?
- What is the link between managerial behaviours and employee turnover at Palladium?
A leadership style is a form of cross-positional behavioural constancy that reflects the approach in which leaders interrelate with their subordinates and the practices they employ to motivate the employees. This section presents a thematic review of the literature on employee engagement and loyalty with respect to the themes of leadership style, managerial behaviours, organisational success, employee motivation, and the rate of turnover. The literature review will use recent studies on this study topic. All the studies are related to the research questions and objectives of the study. They offer a comprehensive discussion and detailed understanding of organisational leadership and people management practices. The section centres mainly on two styles of leadership, the transactional and transformational approaches, because they are the most commonly used styles by leaders and managers across the globe. The review of the literature seeks to demonstrate an all-inclusive situation of the components of motivation and implementation of people management practices while attempting to give an understanding of why workers choose to stay or leave an organisation. The notion of employee retention plays a crucial role in an organisation as it influences its present and future success. Credible peer-reviewed journal articles have been utilised in this section in line with the topic. A comprehensive review of the studies is valuable because it develops thorough comprehension that is necessary to avoid or overcome the challenges in the effective implementation of people management practices.
Effective People Management Practices
Organisational success does not only rely on well-planned and internally unswerving people management practices and strategies but mainly on its effective execution. Researchers are differentiating between intended and realised people management practices since the two vary and occur within organisations. Studies on people management usually depend on the intended HR policies instead of the approaches that were put into operation. Yilmaz and Kitapci (2017) have researched this issue with the help of information gathered via a survey of 125 organisations in Kocaeli organised industry area. Data assessment in the study has been undertaken with the aid of structural equation modelling. The researchers found that the application of effective people management practices and strategies is crucial to the success of an organisation. The operations of the HR department are progressively being delegated to the managers (Antwi et al., 2016). Devolvement represents the extent to which people management strategies engage and bestow responsibility upon managers instead of other specialists. Even with the HR department seeking to ensure effective HR practices, organisational changes and transformations have to be in support of such endeavours (Yilmaz & Kitapci, 2017). The limitations of the research are the insufficiency of data and poor quality of the sample.
The study by Serafimovska and Popovski (2017) has the key objective of exploring the connection of people management with novelty in organisations in Macedonia. The survey engages organisations intending to determine the level of innovation managed and deliberately influenced by HR practices. The researchers affirm that the responsibilities of running organisational operations ought to be left to the management who must be professionals in the field hence there is pressure to ensure efficacy with respect to the mounting competition and rising demand of efficiency. Through successful management of people, organisations are probable of realising their set objectives (Antwi et al., 2016). Companies have to understand that the realisation of competitive advantage necessitates excellent people management and continuous improvement of organisational performance. On this note, it is apparent that such organisations can favourably compete if they dedicate special attention to their human resources. The significance of successful management of people is rising in the Republic of Macedonia as it results in saving costs, speeding up decision making, connecting HR practices to other factors of management, and ensuring a more successful resolution for workplace challenges (Serafimovska & Popovski, 2017). As managers engage in the management of people, the HR specialists may get involved in the alignment of organisational systems and practices while being sensitive to the external surroundings.
In the present times, companies are facing tremendous impediments to staying competitive in a continually changing and exceedingly challenging international marketplace (El Badawy & Bassiouny, 2015). Understanding the strategic worth of their workforce and the outlay linked with the loss of a valued worker, companies have to be mindful of staff turnover concerns. The aim of El Badawy and Bassiouny (2015) was to evaluate the positive influences of transformational leadership on the involvement of workers and the impact on their plan to leave a company. Data was obtained from 500 workers in Vodafone Egypt and a non-experimental quantitative method was employed for the research while using different statistical tools to deduce the data. The findings expressed statistically significant connection involving the three variables: engagement of workers, transformational leadership, and intent to quit. A positive correlation was established between transformational leadership and involvement of workers while a negative connection was discovered between transformational leadership and the intent to leave. Similarly, there was a statistically negative association between the engagement of workers and turnover rate. The researchers concluded that organisations ought to develop transformational leadership while fully engaging their workers to reduce the turnover rate.
Workers in both public and private sector companies have a likelihood of remaining with their organisations when their managers inculcate pride in them, trust and revere them, value their contribution, and articulate great anticipations with them, which amounts to transformational leadership style. The purpose of the research by Gyensare et al. (2017) is to evaluate how the engagement of workers and affective dedication mediate the connection involving transformational leadership and deliberate turnover plans. The researchers also assess the moderating task of psychological climate in the link between affective organisational dedication and turnover level. A cross-sectional design was employed by the researchers as the research framework. Moreover, hierarchical linear modelling and bootstrapping examination were carried out with the help of data from 336 workers in a Ghanaian company.
The findings of the study by Gyensare et al. (2017) established that transformational leadership approach positively sways engagement, and this was proved to have a negative correlation with the turnover rate. The engagement of workers was seen to mediate the connection between transformational leadership and deliberate turnover plans (Alatawi, 2017). Furthermore, the psychological climate was shown to moderate the connection between effective dedication and the rate of turnover. Regardless of the practical importance of this research in reducing the level of turnover in organisations, it is not devoid of drawbacks (Gyensare et al., 2017). For instance, the size of the sample for the cross-sectional study was inadequate and findings were restricted to workers from just a single company, which means that they are not generalisable. Future studies should seek to generalise the results of this study through the application of large samples from different organisations in diverse geographical locations. The study concludes that transformational leadership and employee engagement reduce turnover intention and offers handy recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of people management practices and organisational success.
The leadership responsibility of managers in companies has varied, and the triumph of organisations depends on the styles of leadership that they exercise. In line with Veliu et al. (2017), successful leaders involve others in their deliberation and modesty since they get occupied in what they love doing and not selfish interests. Leadership styles sway how management practices are undertaken. In this regard, the different styles of leadership ought to be chosen and aligned to suit organisations, circumstances, individuals, and groups. Therefore, it is helpful to have a thorough understanding of the unlike styles because such knowledge enhances the tools available to lead successfully.
The purpose of the study by Veliu et al. (2017) was to evaluate the influence of the different leadership styles on the performance of workers in a company. The study population was private enterprise managers of Medium and Large sized organisations in Kosovo. Data were collected via questionnaires with the constructs employed being adapted from previous studies already checked for reliability. The study concluded that most leadership characteristics, traits, values, and styles from the wide-ranging literature concerning leadership are almost comparable to the conduct of the leader. Similar to the affirmations by Gyensare et al. (2017), Veliu et al. (2017) established that through the leaders’ influence of the followers, leadership styles have developed and turned out to be more democratic. Leadership approaches are perceived as the combination of the skills, attributes, and conducts that are employed by leaders while interrelating with employees.
The study by Srimannarayana (2013) asserts that the competitive business setting creates a broad diversity of challenges and concerns to the people management practice. The study aimed to establish the level of implementation of people management competencies by HR professionals in their practices. The author affirmed that a wide pool of studies has shown that organisational leadership influences the behaviour and attitude of workers through empowering them. Performance acts as a relative conception delineated with respect to some significance and using an intricate set of time-anchored measurements of creating future outcomes (Alatawi, 2017). The data for this study was gathered from 594 senior managers in different companies in India (Srimannarayana, 2013). The data was collected with the help of a questionnaire that formed the foundation for the study. The researcher concluded that excellent performance is vital both to the employees and the organisation at large and is usually linked to success and efficiency. Though the performance of a company is reliant on the efforts of the human resources at every level, there is a need to discuss the perception of individual performance. Performance appraisal is an on-going activity for all leaders and their subordinates with the measurement and its pointers being quality, relevance, quantity, and cost-efficiency.
In their research, Min, Ugaddan, and Park (2016) establish that successful leaders comprehend the value of workers in realising the objectives of the company and that motivating the workers is of vital significance in reaching the set goals. Unlike leadership approaches result in different outcomes, which have an indirect or direct influence on the attitude and conducts of the workers. The influence of organisational leadership and the empowerment of workers on creative inclination were analysed empirically in the study with the help of information from the 2013 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS). The findings imply that leadership aspects have unlike impacts on creative propensity. Effective leadership is associated with excellent performance. The connection between performance and leadership is the establishment of considerable interest. The success of the workforce is mainly reliant on the excellence of leadership; successful leaders enhance the realisation of the aspirations of the subordinates, which then leads to outstanding performance (Shala et al., 2018). Attributable to its capacity to influence the performance of workers, leadership has become the most studied organisational variable.
The aim of the study by Shala et al. (2018) is to comprehend the influence of leaders and their significance in the analysis of the perceptions and leadership behaviour in a company, in this study case LOGI-KOS, while illustrating excellent performance through effective leadership influence and values. The study employs both qualitative and quantitative research methods. In the article, face-to-face interviews have been undertaken with the Chief Executive Officer of the company and surveys completed by workers, 28 out of 36. The researchers establish that performance signifies the implementation, achievement, fulfilment, and undertaking of the planned activities, and is highly influenced by the style of leadership. Research on leadership asserts positive connection involving transformational leadership and excellence at different levels. On the same note, transactional leadership has been proved to facilitate job satisfaction, in addition to the inclination to identify with the company. Great leaders, with regard to effectiveness, have been established to articulate a powerful and direct, though the participative and independent styles of leadership, and operate as agents of transformation and visionaries who improve organisational success (Min, Ugaddan & Park, 2016). The study by Shala et al. (2018) concluded that successful leadership ought to stimulate and influence workers to put efforts towards realising the company’s goals and assisting it to succeed.
Guerrero et al. (2015) affirm that leadership is concerned with motivating employees and equipping them to take part in the success of the company. The behaviour of the leader is of great significance irrespective of the changing situations in the organisation. Any action by a leader may have a powerful impact on the psychological state of the workers and successful completion of their undertakings. In this regard, successful leaders ought to use different kinds of influence and control the work environment (Abson, 2017). The researchers depended on a dramatic and iterative mixed-method process to collect data through semi-structured interviews and focus groups while using surveys to quantitatively position strategy efficacy (Guerrero et al., 2015). Findings establish that different facets of the organisational culture get linked to the tasks of the leaders while generating and upholding particular forms of civilisation. The presence of leadership is felt all through the company and its operations.
In the last century, leadership turned out to be a highly researched topic thereby making it easy to discover its five viewpoints. They include Competency point of view, Behavioural view, Implicit Leadership standpoint, Transformational perception, and the Contingency perspective (Abson, 2017). The qualitative research by Abson (2017) was anchored in semi-structured interviews centred on different managers operating in the business events sector. The researcher asserted that under the Competency Point of View, leadership is seen to reflect the idea that people require particular competencies to accomplish the assigned roles; for instance, emotional intelligence, drive, integrity, confidence, leadership motivation, awareness of the organisation, and intellect. A restriction of this standpoint (though attaining popularity) is the global list of attributes with the conviction that nearly all situations are unworkable in the multifaceted world of leadership.
Abson (2017) established that from the Behavioural Viewpoint, leadership is created by people-anchored and task-based leaders. People-anchored conduct encompasses portraying mutual reverence and trust, illustrating a legitimate concern, and developing a yearning to take care of the wellbeing of workers. Data analysis in the study was undertaken using thematic approach and a list of leadership approaches. The task-based conduct was found to embrace the definition and configuration of work roles. The restriction of this approach is that it results in broad generalisations, which cannot recognise the behaviour exclusively. Moreover, the behavioural approach presumes that elevated rates of both styles work best in every situation, while the truth is that they are reliant on the present condition.
The descriptive and cross-sectional study by Malik (2013) assessed the connection between leadership behaviour and workers’ job satisfaction in Pakistan. Information for use in the study was gathered from first and middle line managers via survey questionnaires with the help of stratified sampling method. The researcher found that leadership under the Implicit Leadership Standpoint comprises of the collection of stereotyping, acknowledgement mistakes, and the necessity for situational management. It seeks to question the significance of leaders, which makes it unsuitable for most research studies. In line with the Contingency Perspective (also referred to as the Path-Goal Leadership), leaders gain support from scientific studies (Malik, 2013). Researchers combine the traditional behavioural methods (people-anchored and task-based) with novel developments while studying motivation to comprehend the influence of the leader on the inspiration and performance of the workforce. In accordance with the Path-Goal Theory, the major purpose of leaders is to encourage workers through assisting them to understand how their task-linked performance may make them realise their objectives.
In their study, Hwang et al. (2015) empirically evaluate how different forms of leadership behaviour sway perceived performance of leaders in diverse cultures, particularly comparing the United States and four Asian nations. The study analyses the impact of leadership approaches on apparent job performance with the application of a huge archival database having a multisource response instrument evaluating leadership behaviours. The authors affirm that effective management recognises four kinds of leadership: the directive leader behaviour, supportive leader behaviour, participative leader behaviour, and the achievement-oriented behaviour. The directive leader behaviour (also referred to as task-based) seeks to offer an effective psychological structure while supportive leader behaviour (people-anchored) is interested in the satisfaction of the inclinations and needs. Participative leader behaviour is geared toward encouraging subordinate contribution to decision making and work unit practices while achievement-oriented approach deals with the encouragement of performance excellence (Guerrero et al., 2015). The restrictions of the path-goal leadership are that proof is nowhere near completion, and some eventualities do not have a direct connection with any style of leadership (Hwang et al., 2015). Furthermore, if the theory expands, the model may become very intricate for the application.
The sample in the study by Dabke (2016) was composed of 200 managers. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) 5X scale was used to measure the managers’ perception of leadership success. The researcher established that over the last two decades, theories of transformational, visionary, and charismatic leaders arose to dominate most of the scientific and empirical studies on leadership. Such theories assess the conducts of leaders, which stir up confidence and obtain the backing of employees, thereby making the leadership result in satisfaction and efficiency. The Full Range Model of Leadership offers an intensive perception of leadership and is possibly the most commonly quoted theory in this field (Mathieu & Babiak, 2015). The model comprises of three styles of leadership: laissez-faire, transformational, and transactional leadership, which holds eight dimensions. The transformational approach is presently the most popular and perhaps holds the highest significance when it comes to leadership matters. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire was developed to assess the conceptions of laissez-faire, transformational, and transactional leadership and is mainly administered to employees for them to rate how regularly their leaders employ each form of behaviour. Transformation leaders have been established to be agents of change who communicate, generate, and mould a joint vision for the company while inspiring the workers. Research has shown that transformational leadership is successful and has been strongly associated with performance and satisfaction of workers.
Luo, Wang, and Marnburg (2013) sought to assess the structure and influence of the Full Range Leadership Theory in China’s hotel sector. The empirical analysis shows that the Full Range Model represented by MLQ is not excellently supported in the industry. The Full Range Model of Leadership under the transformational approach is the most relevant to the operations of most organisations. This model upholds the attributes of transformational leaders who act as change representatives. Such leaders have helped organisations to develop a new vision, gain the necessary support, steer companies through a transformative stage, and hold the ability to institutionalise change gradually. The leaders can create reforms through developing an idea that is attractive to workers instead of letting the status quo lead to dissatisfaction (Hwang et al., 2015). Since a successful vision offers both a motivational and tactical focus, the leaders can create new things from old ones (Luo, Wang & Marnburg, 2013). The Full Range Model provides a distinction between transformational and transactional leadership hence offering awareness of the differences in their application and outcomes.
Transformational and Transactional Leadership
Mahdinezhad and Suandi (2013) undertook their study to discover the influence of transactional and transformational leadership styles on performance. They assert that the necessity for transformation in a company and the significance of managers and leaders who can effectively manage change is on the rise. The reality that transformation necessitates the creation of new systems and their institutionalisation in the novel approach highlights the value of excellent leadership in the change progression. Transformation leadership attributes are exceptionally appropriate in the preparation and implementation of change within an organisation (Chang, 2015). Such leaders spark organisational advancements through the creation of a vision while simultaneously generating a setting that backs exploration, taking of risks, and sharing of notions. Though transactional and transformational leadership appear to be in different ends of a continuum, some researchers argue that they are complementary conceptions (Mahdinezhad & Suandi, 2013). In line with such researchers, transformational leaders do not articulate changes, but at times employ the transactional leadership style. This signifies that the two styles of leadership are not contrary to each other but both ought to be applied by successful leaders and managers. It has also been affirmed that transactional leadership is a prerequisite for effectiveness in transformational leadership.
Attributable to leaders’ considerable influence, their impact is not just felt in the organisation but also the entire society. In the company, transformational leaders may boost the efficacy and success through the realisation of competitive benefit (Pasha et al., 2017). In most instances, companies have to create changes to align themselves with the settings in which they operate. Such changes mainly happen in the areas of people management, the company’s objectives, structures, and policies to mention a few. With the application of the Bayesian SEM on survey reactions of 2786 workers of a national transportation department, the study by Pasha et al. (2017) evaluates the influence of transformational leaders on mission valence at three levels of leadership. The researchers found that in some cases, essential and radical changes have to be undertaken and transformational leadership is necessary for their successful actualisation. Radical changes are not just required while tackling internal people management challenges in a company but may also be vital in successful companies for the attainment of higher performance.
Chang (2015) incorporates theories of transformational leadership (TFL) and organisational ambidexterity (OA) in strategic human resource management (SHRM) to assess how TFL at the departmental and firm-level controls unit-stage OA. This was evaluated through the transformation of the unit-stage confidence and formation of the organisational-level conviction climate in Taiwanese software companies in an Asia-Pacific background. The study established that, in the recent times, there has been the need for most traditional forms of communication, principles, norms, and manner of handling the workforce to be replaced by new approaches. Such new practices have to be excellently understood and accepted in the market for enhanced competition. The international market has its means of controlling the undertakings of all organisations and assessing each effort. The successful engagement of leaders and managers in the modern organisations is inevitable if radical change is to happen productively (Mahdinezhad & Suandi, 2013). To ensure control over employees, managers have to rely on formal power, which is facilitated by their social influence (Chang, 2015). The results show that department-level transformational leadership was positively linked to unit-stage OA with this connection being moderated by organisational-level TFL. SHRM shapes organisational cultures, and its vital task is to influence the employees through coming up with changes that stimulate greater objectives and anticipations. In this manner, the transformational managers offer a platform for lasting organisational reforms that enhance the vitality of the system to higher aims.
Wang, Zheng, and Zhu (2018) employed a model that jointly assessed psychological capital as the main mechanism through which transformational leadership influenced the voice behaviour of workers and assessed the moderating impact of workers’ organisational identification on psychological capital-voice behaviour association. Data for the study was obtained from 237 workers in organisations in South China. Wang, Zheng, and Zhu (2018) affirm that centring on the needs makes transformational leaders accountable to the employees. They established that workers are driven by a moral necessity, the need to defend a cause, or ambition to take a high moral stand on a subject. People desire to feel that a high organisational divine task directs their intentions. Another desire is the paradoxical propulsion of conflict and stability. Transformational managers seek to help employees make sense out of unpredictability. Conflict is essential to generate options and make change achievable. To avoid challenges in the implementation of successful people management practices, the process of execution ought to be based on compassion, understanding, effective communication, insight, and deliberation and not manipulation, dictatorship, power-wielding, or intimidation. Leadership and expertise have reciprocal influences on one another; an alteration in one requires modification in the other. Transformational managers are essential in a developing technological society that is progressing from controlled transformation to hastened change almost beyond control (Mahdinezhad & Suandi, 2013).
In the study by Bodenhausen and Curtis (2016), learners in a senior rank course in hospitality management at a university in the South-western US with prior work experience articulated their views concerning transformational leadership and the successful engagement of workers. With the help of questionnaires in data collection and SAS analysis, the results of the study show that transformational leadership has a considerable impact on the performance of employees. Transformational Managers seek to uphold organisational ideals, ethics, standards, and realisation of long-term goals while ensuring continued development and improvement of the employees’ performance in an attempt of boosting their abilities (Chang, 2015). They usually demonstrate strong internal values and principles (Bodenhausen & Curtis, 2016). From such a standpoint, transformational management can be perceived as a knowledgeable influence progression in teams and individuals to generate continued changes in present circumstances and performance. For people management, the managers should act as vision bearers who stimulate employees to perform extraordinary works by drawing new essential routes for organisational practices. Transformational managers implement effective changes in the society through their words and conduct. The employees have a sentiment of respect, decorum, and allegiance toward their managers.
Companies are discovering that emotional intelligence has a vital task of enhancing organisational success (Mahdinezhad & Suandi, 2013). Previous research on emotional intelligence has concentrated on just transformational leadership, mainly backing the idea that transformational leaders are emotionally intelligent. Nevertheless, the link between emotional intelligence and transactional leadership has been inadequately studied. This is surprising taking into consideration that the demonstration of transactional leadership might be more appropriate for sales managers when judged against transformational leadership. The study by Dey and Carvalho (2014) sought to bridge the existing gap by evaluating whether, similar to transformational leaders, transactional managers have emotional intelligence. Data for this study focused on emotional intelligence, transformational leadership, and transactional style and was obtained from 41 sales managers. The sales executives participated in an evaluation centre intended to name a candidate for the post of a territory manager at an international Chemical and Seeds Company that has its headquarters in Mumbai.
The findings of the study by Dey and Carvalho (2014) showed that transactional leadership is also connected to emotional intelligence. Moreover, in contrast to the researchers’ anticipations, they established that not all transactional managers have the chance of developing emotional intelligence. It is believed that the results of this study have a great significance for companies that are presently hiring and training their sales executives to become transformational managers. The demonstration of emotional intelligence by transactional leaders to their employees and customers could result in sales executives delivering superior performance.
In their study, Brahim, Riđić, and Jukić (2015) established that transactional leaders recognise the performance of employees and react to them through establishing a close connection between effort and reward. Authority is offered to the leaders for the evaluation, correction, and training of employees when there is a necessity to improve performance and reward effectiveness whenever the needed outcomes are realised. The research aimed to establish what leaders think concerning the organisational outcomes achieved through utilisation of varying leadership styles while focusing on the banking industry in Algeria. Convenience sampling technique was used, and the research was carried out in a cross-sectional approach. From the 174 surveys that were distributed, responses were received from 132 participants. A quantitative research instrument was created for the analysis of data. Its design was adopted because it was believed to be the most efficient for this study.
The survey acted as the major instrument for collecting data and was generated in the form of a 5-point Likert’s scale, over and above descriptive research questions. The information gathered from the research was analysed with the help of descriptive statistics. The analysis of variance was employed to identify variations in leadership involving numerous groups of participants, by age bracket and operation within the company. The study was undertaken to identify how successful managers apply human resources and funds to satisfy clients and attain organisational objectives. Brahim, Riđić, and Jukić (2015) assessed the influence of the transactional style of leadership on the performance of workers in Algerian banks and found that it was positively and considerably associated with success. This pertains either to the issuance of rewards if the established objectives are achieved, or punishment when employees fail to realise the desired goals. The rewards and punishments were seen to build a strong relationship with organisational success.
Challenges of People Management Practices in an International Context
Increased globalisation has resulted in the organic development and overall increase of multinational companies with the associated need for managers’ ability to implement people management practices in such settings effectively. The problems that international human resource management is encountering in trying to meet such demands are overwhelming (Story et al., 2014). Though international human resource management has been addressing recruitment, training, and development concerns for a long time, there is a growing realisation that traditional people management practices and assumptions are not adequate anymore. A new deliberation by both international human resource management scholars and managers of multinational companies is essential. With the full force of internationalisation hitting today’s companies, it is evident that many cultural and human challenges that require being addressed (Mahdinezhad & Suandi, 2013). In this regard, international human resource management is being compelled to comprehend and develop multinational organisational managers who can overcome the arising problems.
A significant solution that is having increased interest is the construct of a global mindset. To assist tackle problems to successful people management implementation, Story et al. (2014) frame the global mindset and seek to discover and empirically evaluate several theory-propelled antecedents. With the help of a diverse sample of 136 international leaders of a famous organisation and a path analysis of testing hypotheses, the researchers established that psychological, personal, and task intricacy antecedents were linked to the respondents’ state of global mindset. The researchers conclude that the present international setting has created numerous changes in the manner in which organisational managers carry out business, in addition to the demand for HR to recognise and infuse the required attributes to be successful regardless of the existing complexity. Training and development of managers and employees are not just components of the international human resource management policy; they have turned out to be the top precedence. Managers who are more confident, self-assured, flexible, and optimistic have been found to have a great state of global mindset (Mahdinezhad & Suandi, 2013).
The retention and development of talented middle and top-level managers with organisational-specific experience and proficiencies support a competitive benefit for companies and is a long-run venture. The retention of employees is considered a strategic people management practice that entails lasting succession scheduling, forecasting tactical organisational requirements and discoveries, nurturing, and retaining talented workers to realise future business demands (Uitzinger, Chrysler-Fox & Thomas, 2018). Most companies fail to review and develop new people management practices the moment organisational policies, aims, products, processes, and other vital business priorities are revised. This research aimed to investigate the problems to retention and successful operations of middle and top-level managers. Since managers are encountering challenges in retaining employees due to unsuccessful retention approaches, the study sought to offer insight into the recommended policies of retaining such workers.
Uitzinger, Chrysler-Fox, and Thomas (2018) employed a quantitative method and a cross-sectional survey while using an instrument generated from the literature. The study was undertaken by 97 human resource management specialists who were registrants of the South African Board of People Practices (SABPP) and established group comparisons, in addition to an exploratory factor analysis. The findings of the research disclosed that management practices and performance are deemed successful retention approaches for middle and top-level managers. Getting a more profound understanding of effective retention approaches for middle and top-level managers may help HR professionals in their endeavours to retain employees. The retention of valuable talent presents numerous challenges to organisations, particularly with respect to globalisation and future success of companies (Festing & Schäfer, 2014). In this regard, there is a need for HR professionals to comprehend the challenges faced in the retention of top talent and centre, mainly, on effective implementation of people management practices.
The review of the literature shows that poor leadership and problems in the implementation of appropriate people management practices result in increased turnover. All the studies that were undertaken on the impact of employee turnover established that it is very harmful to organisational success due to the loss of talents. Transformational leadership style and motivation of workers are fundamental in the retention of employees. Transformational and transactional styles of leadership have a considerable influence in decreasing employee turnover and have to be utilised in different circumstances. There was a widespread notion that no single style of leadership might be sufficient to every situation within an organisation. Transformational style of leadership employs intangible enticements that encompass an apparent vision, a suitable model, improved performance anticipations, fostered approval of team goals, and offers personalised support and deliberation of leadership aspects, in addition to retention approach. The review of the literature has vividly outlined the importance of effective leadership approach of managers on retaining workers even at the heart of challenges and pressures that the company could be encountering. Overcoming the challenges to effective implementation of appropriate people management practices and application of both transformational and transactional leadership styles assists in the mitigation of the plans of workers to leave a company even when there are other alternatives from which to select.
This study was carried out systematically to ensure an enhanced understanding of the impact of people management styles and managerial behaviour on job satisfaction, employee motivation, and the rate of turnover at Palladium. The researcher endeavoured to establish the style of leadership that best supports employee retention and other factors that sway organisational success. This section presents the methodological progression used in the research. The interpretivism approach as employed in this study is vital because it underscores the methods pursued by the researcher to achieve the research objective in the most effective way possible. Reis and Judd (2014) affirm that the methodology section in a study offers a comprehensive plan that underlines the different procedures and processes that are fundamental in the realisation of the aims of the research. There is a need for a systematic manner of resolving the research problem so that the solutions found can have high validity and precision.
An effective methodology is valuable in undertaking data analysis and interpretation because a better resolution to the problem can be realised. The successful undertaking of the outlined research steps necessitates the researcher to have proper planning with regard to answering the research questions. Applying the research methods becomes effective when the researcher understands the logic behind the utilisation of the chosen techniques (Vargas-Silva, 2012). Since the role of the methodology section is greatly important with respect to the study on people management practices, managerial behaviour, employee motivation, and the retention of workers, the researcher will embark on a sequential process. The progression will result in new and interesting findings in managerial practice and employee retention at Palladium while justifying the selection of the research methods adopted by the researcher.
This study employed both the primary and secondary processes of data collection and a mixed method (both qualitative and quantitative techniques) of data analysis. This research employed the case study of Palladium. Unlike the case study method used in this research, thematic analysis is a cluster approach that centres on the recognition of patterned significance across a dataset. Grounded theory offers a systematic methodology concerning the testing of hypothesis via orderly collection and analysis of data. The ethnographic method presents a qualitative technique concerned with the observation and interaction with respondents in the study in a real-life setting. The case study method is the most valuable approach when compared to all the other techniques discussed. This is because case studies offer a detailed assessment of the participants. Moreover, in a case study, data are characteristically collected from several sources through the help of a variety of methods (for instance, interviews and observations), which makes the information gathered more reliable and accurate. The case study helped in assessing the management of Palladium to identify the people management practices that characterise the organisation and how they influence job satisfaction. The study also sought to establish the extent to which managerial behaviour influences the employees’ motivational levels, hence the loyalty and the connection between people management approach and employee turnover at Palladium.
To prepare for data collection, the researcher first visited one of Palladium’s offices in London to have unofficial communication with some employees, for example, the secretary and corporate business partner. The reason behind having unofficial conversations was to offer a comprehensive understanding of the phenomena backing the study. Secondary data for the study was collected from recent and credible journals and books from reputable sources that include Google and online libraries such as EBSCOhost, Emerald, and ProQuest.
The researcher randomly contacted 85 respondents, comprising of the management, senior members of staffs, and junior level employees, to participate in the study. All the respondents came from Palladium’s six different offices whose locations spread across London and other parts of the UK. The participants were both male and female employees of Palladium aged between 25 and 45 years. All the participants had at least a bachelor’s degree and were on a permanent employment basis. 50 participants were senior employees who had worked in Palladium for over 6 years while 35 were junior workers who had been in the company for less than 2 years. They were contacted via Skype for Business which appeared to be the most preferred way of communication within the organisation.
Techniques and Procedures
After the choice of the respondents, semi-structured interview questions were employed because of their benefit in allowing the researcher to get detailed information from the participants (Appendix A). The data provided insights into how the interviewees interpreted and made sense of the research. Before embarking on the interview, the researcher offered a clarification based on the study, the type of questions that would be issued, the strict confidentiality with which the shared information would be accorded, and the free will to contribute. After this, the researcher gave the participants a chance to ask questions on what they needed further explanation before issuing the questionnaires to them. The period of the interview was one hour for each interviewee. In the collection of secondary data, the researcher used different terms in search for credible journals from the databases. Some of the used research terms include management styles, the influence of managerial behaviour on job satisfaction, the impact of leadership style on employee motivation, and the impact of managerial behaviour on the rate of turnover. Out of more than 1000 available sources, the researcher used discretion to narrow down to the 65 most credible peer-reviewed journals, books, and web sources.
Ethical Considerations and How They Were Addressed
The respondents were informed that taking part in this study was voluntary. In this regard, though the participants were encouraged to complete the study, they reserved the right to withdraw any moment if they found it necessary. The researcher did not coerce or offer incentives to the participants to persuade them to participate. Nonetheless, as part of adhering to the principle of free disclosure (McNabb, 2015), the researcher informed the respondents of all the risks involved in participating in the study. Ethical approval was sought before conducting the study (Appendix B).
Privacy and Confidentiality
The researcher ensured to present the data anonymously to protect the privacy of the respondents. The researcher also upheld the privacy of the respondents by omitting the office locations and positions held in the organisation.
Since the research was undertaken was an organisation specific case study to understand the extent to which people management practices of managers may affect employee retention level and loyalty, it was difficult to generalise the study to other organisations or to economic sectors that share different operational and employee dynamics from Palladium. Considering that there is a risk of misunderstanding, the researcher mentioned a caveat stating the limitations of relying on the research findings. First, the data collected were self-reports of managers, executives, and employees. Though the participants were assured of confidentiality and anonymity, there is a high probability that they were influenced by socially enviable response inclinations. Second, regardless of the efforts by the researcher to collect data from different offices of Palladium, the study cannot represent proportionately every form of organisation.
Results and data analysis
This section presents the results and analysis of the data gathered with the help of questionnaires and interviews on people management practices, leadership styles and the influence of managerial behaviour on job satisfaction, employee motivation, and the rate of employee turnover at Palladium. After the presentation of the responses of the participants (management and junior and senior staff), this section analysed the data to establish the variables and aspects that have considerable roles in ensuring motivation and retention of employees while upholding the success of the organisation. This section identified that effective implementation of appropriate people management practices results in the motivation of workers and employee retention and is vital to organisational success.
Results and Analysis
Concerning the type of managerial behaviour used, 20 participants said, “Transformational leadership”, 15 wrote, “Transactional leadership”, while the majority (50) stated, “Transformational leadership but at times the transactional approach”. The research established that the management in Palladium predominantly employ transformational leadership style but at times use the transactional approach. All the participants felt that transformational leadership had a powerful positive influence on people management. A summary of responses from the participants on the extent to which managerial behaviour affects job satisfaction was, “When I feel treasured and appreciated by the management, I improve my performance, get motivated, and find the need to remain in the organisation”. However, the management felt that continued rewarding of employees at times becomes very expensive for the organisation and they are compelled to check it, which substantiates the pattern that has continually been employed by management. The employees stated that leadership style of the managers has a considerable influence on dependent variables such as job satisfaction, employee motivation, the rate of turnover, and organisational success. The results anchored on the general sample of employees were noteworthy for both transformational and transactional styles of leadership by the managers although the first was considered to be the one that is mainly employed by the management.
Employee Motivation and the Rate of Turnover
On the question of employee turnover, the participants’ responses summarised that, “The management is concerned with the realisation of sustained high performance and ensuring staff retention through rewards, benefits, training, allowances, and recognition”. The employees stated that the Palladium Group provides their staff with tokens of appreciation for improved performance and effective implementation of change regularly. Moreover, all employees, whether at the management, senior, or junior rank, said that, “We are motivated through four forms of allowances that include rent/house allowance, utility allowance, fuel and maintenance allowance, and risk allowance”. It has been widely perceived that for an organisation to ensure retention of talents; it is essential to remunerate them well and motivate them. Payment acts as the keystone for employee retention and loyalty. All the participants (85) stated that they got allowances each month, a strong aspect that contributes to the retention of employees. This backs the affirmation that attention has to be offered to the extent of employee motivation and job satisfaction if managers are to improve the performance of the organisation.
When the participants were asked how the managerial behaviour at Palladium enhances their job satisfaction, 20 of the respondents stated that, “The application of the transformational style by managers provides a sense of significance and challenge”. 25 participants stated that, “Managers work passionately and optimistically to promote the spirit of teamwork and dedication”. 35 respondents asserted that, “Managers act as mentors and reward us for creativeness and innovativeness”. The other 5 participants were managers who stated that, “Creating change and encouraging employees to adopt it through rewarding them has helped them uphold job satisfaction while ensuring organisational success”. Just like the workers, the executive expected the managerial behaviour to have a considerable impact on the successful implementation of people management processes.
Motivation and Job Satisfaction
The participants who stated that fuel and maintenance allowance gives them the greatest motivation (75) affirmed that, “Because the amount of money offered as fuel and maintenance allowance is high; I use some of it for other needs”. Therefore, they feel proud to identify with the organisation. When asked whether they were delighted with their present motivational package and managerial behaviour at Palladium, some of the participants (30) said, “No”. This shows some element of job dissatisfaction that the management ought to address to reduce the rate of turnover. However, the majority of the respondents (55) said, “Yes”, which indicated a strong sense of job satisfaction. In an interview with two senior employees who expressed some form of job dissatisfaction, they affirmed that the management ought to offer them additional motivational packages to feel highly motivated and remain in the organisation. Such form of motivation encompasses the provision of incentive bonus and entertainment allowance.
The final question endeavoured to establish other aspects that sway job satisfaction and employee retention in Palladium. An open-ended question was employed to collect data from the respondents. From their responses, many factors were listed as having a considerable impact on the employees’ intention to remain with the organisation. The respondents said that, “Interpersonal affiliations with colleagues, career growth, inability to find a new job, experience gained from the organisation, and work-life balance are other factors that influence job satisfaction and employee retention at Palladium”.
The management at Palladium motivates the employees to believe in more than their objectives and interests and centre on the successful group, organisational, national, and international goals. Through ensuring a clear future standpoint, the managers exert their influence over employees in a way that holds such a perception as their own and articulate much effort to accomplish it. Through such practices, they move the company toward the ideal view through coordinating the workers and incorporating all system elements. In Palladium, transformational leadership acts as a progression in which managers and employees lift each other to greater extents of motivation and morality. A vital component of change is the capacity to cultivate the requirements of the workers in a follower centred (person-focused) approach. The provision of motivational packages and allowances to employees at Palladium as confirmed in the research shows that when workers are motivated, they tend to direct their energy towards the realisation of organisational objectives. In their endeavours to achieve the set goals, workers attain excellent performance, which gives the organisation competitive advantage in the market. On the contrary, if motivation levels of workers decreases, they tend to search for employment elsewhere, which increases the rate of employee turnover and, consequently, organisational failure.
This section discusses the findings of the research comprehensively. The research questions and objectives of the study have been discussed with respect to the review of the literature and the results of the study. Anchored in the results of the study, it was found that transformational leadership style of managerial behaviour highly influences job satisfaction and retention of workers. Although leadership style has a strong influence on organisational success, other factors such as motivation are imperative. Transactional and transformational styles of leadership were found to influence employee retention greatly, but the latter was found to have a greater impact among the employee at Palladium.
The findings of this research affirm that the leadership style on management behaviour has a strong impact on job satisfaction and the level of employee turnover. This is portrayed in the employees’ perspectives as illustrated in the qualitative data that was obtained from the participants. The significance of the findings on leadership style and level of turnover confirms the burden that lies on the shoulders of managers responsible for people management. This signifies that though the style of leadership influences retention and job satisfaction, other facets ought to be applied to guarantee lasting success. The findings establish that transformational leadership has a more effective influence on the decreased rate of employee turnover when compared to transactional leadership. The results of the study establish that transformational leadership style contributes to a greater extent than results in employee retention and loyalty. The capacity of the managers to identify the specific demands and desires of employees and meet them results in the performance of their tasks prudently (Amankwaa & Anku-Tsede, 2015; Gyanchandani, 2017).
People management is now progressing past transactional, hiring and firing approach and becoming a bottom-line judgment maker. In line with this change, organisations are experiencing a broad scope of issues and challenges from the external and internal surroundings, which managers and HR professionals must deal with for enhanced success (Odenyo, Chebet & Rotich, 2015; Spitzbart, 2013). This results in HR professionals embarking on different roles such as acting as administrative specialists, tactical partners, change agents, and custodians of employees’ rights (Deery & Jago, 2015; Stone et al., 2015). To uphold the changing roles, managers responsible for people management need to develop and demonstrate a new set of proficiencies to satisfy their responsibilities. Such proficiencies include skills, knowledge, personality attributes, and abilities that directly influence the performance of workers. With increased weight being placed on their competencies, managers are compelled to use different leadership styles for varying circumstances while understanding when to exhibit a given technique.
Effective people management practices seek to reinforce the relationship between managers and employees where leaders try to sway workers to accomplish a common objective. To overcome the challenges, the managers ought to comprehend the position of supremacy, task structure, expertise, and leader-employee relationship (Bhalla, Sidhu & Kaur, 2017; Stone & Deadrick, 2015). Effective understanding of successful people management practices is vital because the failure or success of a company is usually attributed to it (Shen & Benson, 2016). Managers ought to comprehend that effective leadership necessitates different approaches that call for their sensitivity and utilisation of numerous approaches (Hollenbeck & Jamieson, 2015). Transformational style of leadership meets the need to stimulate workers to restructure their demands through rising above selfish ambitions and striving for higher accomplishments.
Employee turnover is an intricate, constant issue that influences the strength of the organisational performance, setting, success, and retention of the talented employees. Alatawi (2017) portrayed turnover as the rotation of employees from one company to another, across jobs, amid different work environments, and around the labour market. The costs associated with the turnover of a single worker were approximated to be 30% to over 200% of the annual pay of an employee, with about $13000 for each member of staff (Alatawi, 2017). The huge expenses of employee turnover are composed of HR management outlays, for instance, recruitment, hiring, and training and development expenditures and are linked to measures of success and performance of firms. In this regard, managing the level of employee turnover should be a priority amid the most fundamental organisational objectives.
Firms have to come up with ways of reducing expenditures, increasing profits, boosting productivity, and purposely planning to retain their talents to remain competitive in a stable economy. Undue employee turnover strongly overburdens organisations through delayed services and lessened profits as firms endeavour to hire new employees, in addition to lessening innovation and creativity as talented workers leave (Ahammad et al., 2016). In most organisations, high-performing, talented employees are incomparable; if such talents leave a company, then the firm may be unable to accomplish the crucial business transactions that they were handling. In contrast, employee turnover unlocks doors for new prudent workers who may be rich in knowledge, innovation, creativity, and experience. Workers who switch jobs might get better working conditions, higher compensation, or improved interrelations. However, even with managerial behaviours considerably influencing the decisions of workers, various determinants influence the preference of employees remaining in or leaving the organisation.
Managerial behaviour is concerned with leadership practices undertaken by managers, for instance, the provision of motivational packages to elicit excellence amidst workers. Motivating workers makes them feel treasured, improves their performance, and reduces the rate of employee turnover in a company. Motivation coupled with the managers’ backgrounds and expertise act as the main stimulus for the workers’ intention to remain in an organisation (Bal & De Lange, 2015). Organisations with a small-minded vision face an increased level of employee turnover. They might end up hiring untalented employees following the loss of talented ones. On this note, talented employees left behind may get disappointed, demoralised, or overwhelmed and hence choose to become unfaithful or undertake their tasks insufficiently. Moreover, if the situations appear unbearable, such talented employees may consider alternatives and might eventually choose to seek employment elsewhere, in most cases, join the competitors.
Transformational leadership approach offers workers a vision and enables them to function as coaches, nurture a supportive climate, pay attention to the needs of employees, appreciate the achievements of workers, and delegate work to employees according to their talents and abilities. This makes them provide meaning to organisational tasks, challenge employees to excel, engage workers in decision-making, support joint effort, back independence, and arouse excellent performance of tasks (Jackson, Schuler & Jiang, 2014). Transformational managers have different approaches to eliciting innovation and creativity and arriving at solutions to problems easily and successfully. Such managers act as role models for workers and ensure actualisation of their promises. They express gusto and may be trusted and reputed for creating successful decisions for the company. Finally, a major aspect that differentiates transformational leadership approach from other managerial behaviours is the inclusion of accommodating leadership or administrative backing.
The results and discussion sections have outlined the outcomes of the numerous variables taken into consideration in the study and discussed them in details. This section has established that the management style that typifies Palladium‘s administration is transformational leadership, the managerial behaviour results in increased job satisfaction, and these factors contribute to the low rate of turnover at the organisation. In this regard, the study shows that there is a strong connection involving leadership style, job satisfaction, and the rate of turnover and that strengthening this relationship through effective people management practices such as motivation leads to employee retention.
Managers responsible for people management also have a critical responsibility in influencing organisational performance, and their success typically relies on the formulation of the most favourable policies and the use of the right resources to accomplish corporate goals. On this note, managers have to use different approaches in an effort of improving the morale and performance of the workforce. Part of the approach entails motivating workers and encouraging them to be dedicated to their work. Here, the task of management centres on assisting employees to comprehend how their contributions add to the overall achievement of organisational objectives. This research is essential to the proper people management in Palladium because workers are at the core of its operations. Managers who properly implement transformational leadership style experience increased job satisfaction and retention of workers. Unwarranted employee turnover strongly overloads organisations through delayed services and reduced profits as companies endeavour to hire new staff, in addition to decreasing innovation and creativity as talented workers leave. Investment in resourcefulness and intelligence has turned out to be a major focus with organisations increasingly centring not just on the means of retaining their talent, but also improving their management and leadership practices for enhanced success.
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