Lennox is a fourteen-year-old with ADHD with difficulty in learning and comprehending mathematics skills a year below grade level. When not on medication, Lennox completes only one out of ten math questions. Normally, Lennox is disruptive and rebellious in class and more often than not, he has difficulty concentrating in both structured and unstructured activities.
In most cases, Lennox does not engage fully with his peers in various activities. In the course of an activity, he may change a topic or leave an activity or a game while the rest of the group continues to play. Sometimes, he may interrupt during a joint or individual interaction to introduce topics completely new and unrelated to the topic being discussed.
Using the ICF model of classification, Barkley & Murphy (2005, p. 78) assert that body functions of children with ADHD show shortfalls in intellectual function, difficulty in sustaining memory, failure to sustain and maintain attention, failure to control emotions, and failure to sequence complex movements (Wender, 2000, p. 88).
In terms of activities, Barkely (2000, p. 52) says that ADHD may impair the ability to learn and apply knowledge as well as handle multiple complex tasks and also manage individual behavior and dealing with stress and frustration. In terms of social functions, children with ADHD may have their education lives drastically altered effectively hindering their movement across educational levels and ultimately their success in the educational program (Brown, 2006, p. 243).
Lennox acutely displays shortfalls in body functions, activities and participation in social activities as evidenced from the activities and the explanations given above.
Given that Lennox has limitations in all three areas as identified by ICF, it is important to come up with a comprehensive plan to try and remedy the situation. The intervention includes an all in an inclusive approach that seeks to remedy social and/or participation skills, body functions, and proper participation in activities.
In terms of social/participation intervention, the program will seek to address behaviors such as impulsiveness, being disruptive, apathy, discouragement and depression. This will be done through the provision of incentives, development of a behavior intervention plan, giving frequent positive feedback, development of work-study programs and ensuring a hands-on approach to learning. This remedy will mainly target participation-related activities that Lennox has shown weaknesses in.
Besides the social intervention, a combined approach using medical treatments and behavior management techniques come in handy for children with ADHD especially those displaying symptoms like those of Lennox. It is necessary to gradually introduce psychopharmacological treatments using specific stimulant medications to treat ADHD symptoms.
These treatments have been proved to greatly improve the abilities of children with ADHD, especially in academic activities. Psycho-pharmacological treatments will mainly target limitations in activities as well as impairments in body functions. Applying behavior management of ADHD, techniques such as behavior parent training, classroom behavior interventions and positive reinforcements will be crucial to dealing with a condition like that of Lennox.
While a psycho-pharmacological approach is likely to have positive results in children with ADHD, there is evidence that they fall short of normalization of skills (Morrison, 2000, p. 123). To minimize this risk, it is prudent to apply this technique sparingly given that consistent medication for more than two years will likely result to undesirable results. Additionally, children with ADHD will be better off if they are put through a behavior management schedule compared to a stimulant regimen.
Role of other professional
Administering remedy to children with ADHD like Lennox will no doubt require a team of professionals. One of the most important roles of ADHD professionals is to improve the ability of children with ADHD’s to concentrate and participate in social activities. Kewley, 2001, p. 49) says that activities like martial arts will greatly improve social skills, concentration and coordination of movements. A martial arts trainer will therefore be an important part o the professional team that will be dealing with Lennox.
According to Flick (1998, p. 32) a martial arts trainer will play the role normally reserved for physiotherapists who are crucial in ADHD treatment (Mosko, O. et al., 2007, p. 67). It is important to note that there are many other activities that a therapist will do for children with ADHD. However, Peirce & Collins say that martial arts are one of the highly rated activities that help children with the above condition (2008, p. 39). Martial arts mainly help remedy limitations in activities as well as restrictions in participation.
However, martial arts professionals can also help in remedying impairments on body functions. Though psycho-pharmacological regimens have a fairly high success rate, there is consensus among medical scholars that martial arts professionals are a critical component in treating children with ADHD.
Jensen & Cooper (2002, p. 164) say that medical professionals regardless of their field must exhibit professionalism in the course of their duties. In this case involving Lennox, a triangulation approach that will combine social intervention, medical treatment and behavior management techniques will be used. In implementing the above, professionals will need to display rationalism, patience and commitment.
Silver says that there are numerous options that a professional can take regarding treatment of children ADHD (2004, p. 78). However, he emphasizes the need for professionals to adopt the best way possible in treating ADHD. This therefore calls for rationalism, in their approach, the need for professionals to adopt the best treatment possible regardless of their biases. In Lennox’s case for instance, there is need for an evaluation of his situation to determine the best approach possible, a rational decision that will be independent of premeditated knowledge.
Another professional characteristic important in the treatment of ADHD in children like Lennox is patience. This is because children with ADHD have shortfalls that make it hard for the children to relate normally. Patience will especially come in handy when administering behavior management as wells social intervention approaches. Children like Lennox may exhibit some characteristics likely to irritate a professional working with them. Patience therefore will be key to successful interaction.
Green (2011, p. 181) says that ADHD professional are likely to encounter unique challenges in the course of their work hence the need for commitment. It is therefore important for these professionals to have a strong resolve to stay the course of the implementing the above-mentioned three activities to ensure effective administration of remedy to the children with ADHD like Lennox. Like patience, commitment is necessary when dealing with Lennox who may easily frustrate a professional working with him.
Strategies for person-centered development
Human centered strategy assumes that clients in this case children with ADHD have the capability to take charge of the therapy process (Holowenko, 1999, p. 51). One of the strategies that a professional may adopt is to let the child with ADHD be in charge of deciding some of the therapies that are available to him.
That way the child with ADHD will be developing a greater sense of self, according him the chance to explore himself. One of the common mistakes that professionals dealing with children with ADHD make is the assumption that these children somehow need a hands-on approach to in the administration of the therapy process (Douglas, 2004, p.45).
Some studies have proven that many children do better when ADHD professional act as facilitators and let their patents take considerable charge of the therapy process. Self exploration and subsequent development of a sense of self takes place better when the child with ADHD is allowed to sparingly choose his/her method of therapy.
Another person centered approach that will come in handy is to help the child with ADHD develop understanding of self in an environment that will spur his creativity effectively enabling him solve his challenges. This will involve carefully profiling the child’s condition and determining the best environment that suits him/her.
This approach is closely related to the first with the only change being the environment factor. In this approach, the ADHD therapist determines the environment to which he introduces to the child. He then lets the child develop using his/her preferred methods as described above.
Strategies for Professional Development
According to Gozal & Molfese, there is a lot of dynamism in healthcare that needs a lot of updating on the professional’s part (2005, p. 66). There is need for medical professionals especially ADHD practitioners to engage in activities that help in professional development.
Boyles & Contadino (1999, p. 149) say that engaging in continuous studies is one of the best ways through which one can maintain professional development. There is enough evidence pointing to the possibility of professionals’ skills becoming ‘rusty’ if they don’t engage in sufficient practice and continuous training.
Continuous studies help professionals refresh their skills effectively making them competitive in their fields. Ratey & Holowel (2011, p.67) support and tout continuous studies as one of the most effective strategies for professional development. Precisely, he cites continuous work in research that brings new phenomena to the medical profession on a regular basis.
Another strategy that is cited as a good way to ensure professional development is through volunteering. According to Douglas, volunteering gives a professional necessary exposure that offers an invaluable platform on which he/she can put to use medical skills (2004, p.287). Volunteering, accords a professional a chance to put to use his/her skills effectively perfecting them. Additionally, volunteering especially in care centers with children for ADHD for instance, exposes a professional to a wide array of problems that are crucial to a professional being an all rounder.
Barkely, R. (2000). Taking charge of ADHD: the complete, authoritative guide for parents. London: Sage Publications.
Barkley, R. & Murphy, K. (2005). Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Clinical Workbook: Volume 2. New York: Cengage Learning.
Boyles, N. & Contadino, D. (1999). Parenting a Child with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Los Angeles: Lipincott.
Brown, T. (2006). Attention Deficit Disorder: The Unfocused Mind in Children and Adults. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Douglas, A. (2004). The Mother of All Parenting Books: The Ultimate Guide to Raising a Happy Helathy Child from Pre-school through to pre-teens. London: Sage Publishers.
Flick, G. (1998). ADD/ADHD behavior-change resource kit: ready-to-use strategies & activities for helping children with attention deficit disorder. New York: McGraw- Hill.
Gozal, D. & Molfese, D. (2005). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: From Genes to Patients. New York: Cengage Learning.
Green, C. (2011). Understanding ADHD. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Holowenko, H. (1999). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a multidisciplinary approach. Berlin: Springer.
Jensen, P. & Cooper, J. (2002). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: state of the science, best practices. Chicago: Springer.
Kewley, G. (2001). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: recognition, reality and resolution. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Morrison, J. (2000). Coping with ADD/ADHD: (attention deficit disorder/attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. New York: Routledge.
Mosko, O. et al. (2007). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and academic performance among undergraduates. New York: Taylor & Sons.
Peirce, J. & Collins, C. (2008). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. New York: Cengage Learning.
Ratey, J. & Holowel, E. (2011). Driven to Distraction: Recognizing and Coping With Attention Deficit Disorder. New York: Routledge.
Silver, L. (2004). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Clinical Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment of AD. London: Sage Publishers.
Wender, P. (2000). Adhd: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adults. Chicago: Springer.